Rodentia

Publication Title: 
The Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology

OBJECTIVES: Withania somnifera has been in use for several thousand years in Ayurveda to treat various neurological disorders. There is, however, not much scientific data on its protective role in neuronal pathology specifically against brain oxidative stress. Hence, an attempt is made in this work for systematic review and meta-analysis of W. somnifera on neurobehavioural disorders induced by brain oxidative stress in rodents. METHODS: A systematic search of the effect of W. somnifera on brain oxidative stress-induced neuronal pathology was performed using electronic databases.

Author(s): 
Durg, Sharanbasappa
Dhadde, Shivsharan B.
Vandal, Ravichandra
Shivakumar, Badamaranahalli S.
Charan, Chabbanahalli S.
Publication Title: 
Experimental Gerontology

Dietary restriction (DR) has been used for decades to retard aging in rodents, but its mechanism of action remains an enigma. A principal roadblock has been that DR affects many different processes, making it difficult to distinguish cause and effect. To address this problem, we applied a quantitative genetics approach utilizing the ILSXISS series of mouse recombinant inbred strains. Across 42 strains, mean female lifespan ranged from 380 to 1070days on DR (fed 60% of ad libitum [AL]) and from 490 to 1020days on an AL diet.

Author(s): 
Rikke, Brad A.
Liao, Chen-Yu
McQueen, Matthew B.
Nelson, James F.
Johnson, Thomas E.
Publication Title: 
Experimental Gerontology

Restriction of dietary methionine by 80% slows the progression of aged-related diseases and prolongs lifespan in rodents. A salient feature of the methionine restriction phenotype is the significant reduction of adipose tissue mass, which is associated with improvement of insulin sensitivity. These beneficial effects of MR involve a host of metabolic adaptations leading to increased mitochondrial biogenesis and function, elevated energy expenditure, changes of lipid and carbohydrate homeostasis, and decreased oxidative damage and inflammation.

Author(s): 
Perrone, Carmen E.
Malloy, Virginia L.
Orentreich, David S.
Orentreich, Norman
Publication Title: 
Neurobiology of Aging

Certain guidelines may exist for selecting and using rodent models for aging research. These are based, however, on only operational criteria because we presently lack good biomarkers for (or even a suitable definition of) normal aging. Longevity and disease characteristics of the experimental population are the most important of the operational criteria for choosing a particular rodent model. These factors, in turn, are influenced by genetics and by environmental factors, including diet, housing, and physical activity.

Author(s): 
Masoro, E. J.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging

Caloric restriction in species with a short life span has shown it can increase median and maximum life expectancy and reduce or delay the onset of most age-related diseases. The remarkable reproducibility of the phenomenon irrefutably proves its validity and makes caloric restriction one of the most frequently studied paradigms in experimental research on aging.

Author(s): 
Nicolas, A. S.
Lanzmann-Petithory, D.
Vellas, B.
Publication Title: 
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition

Dietary energy restriction is the only proven method for extending lifespan and slowing aging in mammals, while maintaining health and vitality. Although the first experiments in this area were conducted over 60 y ago in rodents, possible applicability to primates has only been examined in controlled studies since 1987. Our project at the National Institute on Aging began with 3-0 male rhesus and 30 male squirrel monkeys of various ages over their respective life spans.

Author(s): 
Roth, G. S.
Ingram, D. K.
Black, A.
Lane, M. A.
Publication Title: 
Science (New York, N.Y.)

When organisms as diverse as yeast and rodents are subjected to a restricted diet, they live longer. The good news is, according to Vaupel, Carey, and Christensen in their Perspective, that switching to a restricted diet at any age can yield the benefit of increased longevity--at least in flies (Mair et al.).

Author(s): 
Vaupel, James W.
Carey, James R.
Christensen, Kaare
Publication Title: 
Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta

Available information indicates that long-lived mammals have low rates of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and oxidative damage at their mitochondria. On the other hand, many studies have consistently shown that dietary restriction (DR) in rodents also decreases mitochondrial ROS (mtROS) production and oxidative damage to mitochondrial DNA and proteins. It has been observed that protein restriction also decreases mtROS generation and oxidative stress in rat liver, whereas neither carbohydrate nor lipid restriction change these parameters.

Author(s): 
LÛpez-Torres, MÛnica
Barja, Gustavo
Publication Title: 
Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The role of calorie restriction in humans is controversial. Recently, new data in monkeys and humans have provided new insights into the potential role of calorie restriction in longevity. RECENT FINDINGS: A study in rhesus monkeys showed a reduction in aging-associated mortality. A number of controlled studies have suggested a variety of beneficial effects during studies of 6-12 months in humans. Major negative effects in humans were loss of muscle mass, muscle strength and loss of bone.

Author(s): 
Morley, John E.
Chahla, Elie
Alkaade, Saad
Publication Title: 
Experimental Gerontology

Dietary restriction (DR) has been used for decades to retard aging in rodents, but its mechanism of action remains an enigma. A principal roadblock has been that DR affects many different processes, making it difficult to distinguish cause and effect. To address this problem, we applied a quantitative genetics approach utilizing the ILSXISS series of mouse recombinant inbred strains. Across 42 strains, mean female lifespan ranged from 380 to 1070days on DR (fed 60% of ad libitum [AL]) and from 490 to 1020days on an AL diet.

Author(s): 
Rikke, Brad A.
Liao, Chen-Yu
McQueen, Matthew B.
Nelson, James F.
Johnson, Thomas E.

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