Despite accumulating knowledge of porcine macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) from in vitro studies, information regarding monocytes/macrophages and DCs in lymphoid tissues of enteric pathogen-infected neonatal animals in vivo is limited. In this study we evaluated the influence of commensal bacterial [two strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Lactobacillus acidophilus and L. reuteri] colonization and rotavirus infection on distribution and frequencies of monocytes/macrophages and conventional DCs (cDCs) in ileum, spleen and blood.
The goal of this study was to define the impact of colonization of gnotobiotic (Gn) pigs with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on development of intestinal and systemic B cell responses to human rotavirus (HRV). The LAB-specific and total B cell responses were also assessed. Gn pigs were inoculated with LAB (Lactobacillus acidophilus and L. reuteri) and virulent Wa strain HRV (LAB+HRV+), HRV only (LAB-HRV+), LAB only (LAB+HRV-) or mock (LAB-HRV-).
We examined rotavirus-specific IFN-gamma producing CD4+, CD8+ and CD4+CD8+ T cell responses in gnotobiotic pigs infected with a virulent human rotavirus (VirHRV) or vaccinated with an attenuated (Att) HRV vaccine (AttHRV3x or AttHRV2x) or an AttHRV oral priming and 2/6-virus-like particle (VLP) intranasal boosting (AttHRV-2/6VLP) regimen. In VirHRV infected pigs, HRV-specific IFN-gamma producing T cells reside primarily in ileum. AttHRV-2/6VLP induced similar frequencies of intestinal IFN-gamma producing T cells as the VirHRV, whereas AttHRV3x or 2x vaccines were less effective.
Toll-like receptors (TLR) play an important role in the recognition of microbes by host sentinel cells that leads to the subsequent innate and adaptive immune responses. In this study, we evaluated the patterns of TLR2-, TLR3- and TLR9-expressing antigen presenting cells (APCs) in spleen and blood of gnotobiotic (Gn) pigs after colonization with a mixture of two strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus reuteri or infection with the virulent human rotavirus (HRV) Wa strain.
Previous studies of epithelial immune responses to rotavirus infection have been conducted in transformed cell lines. In this study, we evaluated a non-transformed porcine jejunum epithelial cell line (IPEC-J2) as an in-vitro model of rotavirus infection and probiotic treatment. Cell-culture-adapted porcine rotavirus (PRV) OSU strain, or human rotavirus (HRV) Wa strain, along with Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA) or Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) were used to inoculate IPEC-J2 cells. LA or LGG treatment was applied pre- or post-rotavirus infection.
BACKGROUND: Rotavirus is the leading cause of severe diarrhea disease in newborns and young children worldwide, estimated to be responsible for over 300,000 childhood deaths every year, mostly in developing countries. Rotavirus-related deaths represent approximately 5% of all deaths in children younger than 5 years of age worldwide. Saponins are readily soluble in water and are approved by the US FDA for inclusion in beverages intended for human consumption. The addition of saponins to existing water supplies offers a new form of intervention into the cycle of rotavirus infection.
γδ T cell responses are induced by various viral and bacterial infections. Different γδ T cells contribute to activation and regulation of the inflammatory response and to epithelial repair. How γδ T cells respond to rotavirus infection and how the colonization of probiotics influences the γδ T cell response were unknown.
Rotavirus is the leading cause of severe diarrhea disease in newborns and young children worldwide with approximately 300,000 pre-adolescent deaths each year. Quillaja saponins are a natural aqueous extract obtained from the Chilean soapbark tree. The extract is approved for use in humans by the FDA for use in beverages as a food addictive. We have demonstrated that Quillaja extracts have strong antiviral activities in vitro against six different viruses. In this study, we evaluated the in vivo antiviral activity of these extracts against rhesus rotavirus (RRV) using a mouse model.
Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
We characterized immune modulating functions of porcine γδ T cell subsets in rotavirus infection using a gnotobiotic pig model of human rotavirus infection and sort-purified lymphocyte autologous co-cultures. We demonstrated that CD2+CD8- and CD2-CD8- γδ T cells have mainly pro-inflammatory function as evident by directly secreting IFN-γ or promoting CD4+ αβ T cell proliferation and IFN-γ production, whereas CD2+CD8+ γδ T cells mainly exert regulatory T cell function by expressing FoxP3, secreting IL-10 and TGF-β or increasing IL-10 and TGF-β production by CD4+ αβ T cells.
Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
OBJECTIVES: Beneficial microbes and probiotics are promising agents for the prevention and treatment of enteric and diarrheal diseases in children; however, little is known about their in vivo mechanisms of action. We used a neonatal mouse model of rotavirus diarrhea to gain insight into how probiotics ameliorate acute gastroenteritis. METHODS: Rotavirus-infected mice were treated with 1 of 2 strains of human-derived Lactobacillus reuteri.