Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
The importance of psychological skills training (PST) in the development of athletic performance is widely recognized. This paper is a comprehensive review of PST in elite sports, with a special focus on high-intensity sports (HIS). The reviewed literature showed a lack of convincing evidence and theoretical underpinning concerning traditional psychological skills to enhance performance in HIS. Therefore, a model with three conceptual levels (psychological demands, skills and techniques) is presented.
Homeopathy: The Journal of the Faculty of Homeopathy
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether the homeopathic medicine Arnica D30 has an effect on muscle soreness and cell damage after marathon running. METHODS: The subjects were 82 marathon runners from two separate randomised double-blind placebo controlled trials participating in the Oslo Marathon in 1990 and 1995. Five pills of Arnica D30 or placebo were given morning and evening. Treatment started on the evening before the marathon and continued on day of the race and the three following days. The runners assessed muscular soreness on a visual analogue scale.
Calorie restriction (CR) slows aging and is thought to improve insulin sensitivity in laboratory animals. In contrast, decreased insulin signaling and/or mild insulin resistance paradoxically extends maximal lifespan in various genetic animal models of longevity. Nothing is known regarding the long-term effects of CR on glucose tolerance and insulin action in lean healthy humans.
The physical technique of slow, long distance running and the mental centering devices of T. M. are combined, using hypnosis in some cases, to enhance a "peak experience," or altered state of consciousness. Indications and contraindications to this technique are described for various psychiatric, psychosomatic and somatic syndromes, and its use as an adjunct to formal individual and group psychotherapy is discussed.
I studied the hypnotic ability of marathon runners as it relates to cognitive dissociation while running and to runner's high. Dissociating runners use a cognitive style in which they cut themselves off from the sensory feedback they would normally receive from their body. Marathon runners demonstrated high hypnotic susceptibility scores. Additionally, use of dissociation as a running strategy during the marathon was positively related to susceptibility, and runners who dissociated in training had higher susceptibility scores than did other runners.
The primary purpose of the present review was to critique studies that examined the influence of psychological state (i.e., affect, perception, and cognition) on running economy (RE). However, only six studies included measures of oxygen consumption at a given workload (i.e., economy) and used running as the mode of exercise. Two of the six studies indicated that increased tension was highly correlated (r = 0.81) with increased oxygen cost and that reductions in tension, using stress management techniques, improved RE.
Annals of Behavioral Medicine: A Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine
BACKGROUND: The evidence of cardiovascular benefits of yoga is promising, but lacks demonstrations of specificity compared to other interventions. PURPOSE: The present cross-sectional study examined cardiovascular health markers in long-term practitioners of yoga (yogis), runners, and sedentary individuals. METHODS: We compared physiological, psychological, and lifestyle variables associated with cardiovascular health across groups.
OBJECTIVE: To examine the efficacy of two preparatory interventions on one mile run performance in 90 high school long distance runners. METHOD: After participants had completed a one mile baseline run, they were randomly assigned to participate in either one of two interventions (brief yoga exercises, motivational shouting exercises) or a no intervention control condition. Experimental conditions were implemented one week after the baseline run about 20 minutes before a second one mile trial.
Winning the gold medal is everything. The competitive sprinter or runner successfully navigates the road to the gold by relying on talent, dedication, and hard work. Along this steep and difficult road, massage therapy provides a powerful tool that helps the athlete reduce recovery time after a track meet, minimize injury, and improve body movement fluidity.