The Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health
Socio-economic changes are taking place all over the world, especially in developing countries, and these influence all aspects of life an all age periods. Resultant disparities have brought about alarming and increasing manifestations of malnutrition and non-communicable disease. Illiteracy, poor health facilities have damaging effects on children. Raising the literacy of girls and adolescents will reduce the leading cause of malnutrition in children, since these future, better educated mothers will be responsible for the children's welfare: child care status with mother care.
The introduction of the New Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS) in rural China has been the most rapid and dramatic extension of health insurance coverage in the developing world in this millennium. The literature to date has mainly used the uneven rollout of NCMS across counties as a way of identifying its effects on access to care and financial protection. This study exploits the cross-county variation in NCMS generosity in 2006 and 2008 in the Ningxia and Shandong provinces to estimate the effect of coverage generosity on utilization and financial protection.
In this article I discuss the role of money vis-‡-vis health care among the Dagomba, an agrarian people living in northern Ghana, whose pluralistic medical culture involves the use of both plants and Western pharmaceuticals in the treatment of various symptoms. In Dagomba society monetary exchanges in the domain of healing cannot be equated with self-interest, and nonmonetary exchanges cannot be compared with altruism in any straightforward fashion. Exchanges and their purposes are made meaningful by the contexts in which they occur. Exchanges may involve money and be commoditized.
BACKGROUND: Chloroquine (CQ) and Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine (SP) are the predominantly used antimalarials in Zambia and other parts of East Africa, but increasing resistance of P. falciparum is a major concern. METHODS: Seventy consecutive patients with uncomplicated falciparum malaria were enrolled. In 43 patients, no prior CQ use could be demonstrated by history and urianalysis (qualitative test, Dill & Glazko) and these patients were given CQ; the other 27 had taken CQ before and received SP.
As part of a study to assess the infectivity of gametocytes after treatment with four antimalarial regimens, the efficacy of each treatment was also determined. From September to December 1998, 598 children with uncomplicated malaria were treated; 135 received chloroquine (CQ) alone, 276 received pyrimethamine/sulfadoxine (Fansidar, PSD) alone, 113 received PSD with a single dose of artesunate (PSD + 1ART) and 74 received PSD combined with three doses of artesunate (PSD + 3ART). On day 28 19/63 (30.2%; 95% C.I. 19.2% to 43.1%) of children treated with CQ alone, 5/134 (3.7%; 95% C.I.
Faced with the problem of resistance to chloroquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, the Ministry of Public Health of Burundi decided to study the efficacy of two artemisinin-based combinations, the fixed combination of artemether-lumefantrine and the combination of amodiaquine + artesunate. The efficacy of these combinations for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria was studied in two sites representative of the country, in Kigobe neighbourhood of Bujumbura, the capital city, and in Buhiga, a rural area.
Senegal is changing policy for case management of uncomplicated falciparum malaria, which hitherto is diagnosed clinically and treated with chloroquine or intramuscular quinine. The WHO recommends artemisinin-based combinations for treating falciparum malaria, preferably based on a parasitological diagnosis. There are no economic projections if such a policy were introduced in Senegal. We have conducted a preliminary economic assessment of such a policy change. The study took place in the chloroquine-resistant district of Oussouye in south-western Senegal.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the diffusion of the change of first line antimalarial drug from chloroquine (CQ) to sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine (SP) at household level in a rural district of Tanzania less than a year after the policy implementation. METHODS: Caretakers in 729 households were interviewed on knowledge of the new policy, home stocking of antimalarials, home-treatment practices of children younger than 5 years with fever, health-seeking behaviour and experience of SP. SP and CQ levels in blood were analysed from 328 children younger than 5 years in the households.
BACKGROUND: The current malaria control strategy of WHO centres on early diagnosis and prompt treatment using effective drugs. Children with severe malaria are often brought late to health facilities and traditional health practitioners are said to be the main cause of treatment delay. In the context of the Rectal Artesunate Project in Tanzania, the role of traditional healers in the management of severe malaria in children was studied.
OBJECTIVE: To study the quality of malaria case management of underfives at health facilities in a rural district, 2 years after the Tanzanian malaria treatment policy change in 2001. METHODS: Consultations of 117 sick underfives by 12 health workers at 8 health facilities in Mkuranga District, Tanzania were observed using checklists for history taking, counselling and prescription. Diagnoses and treatment were recorded. Exit interviews were performed with all mothers/guardians and blood samples taken from the underfives for the detection of malaria parasites and antimalarial drugs.