OBJECTIVES: We investigated the characteristics of the oldest old in China and examined whether the factors associated with longevity varied with advanced age. METHODS: Drawing from the largest nationally representative longitudinal sample of oldest-old adults, we stratified descriptive statistics separately by gender and urban-rural residence and then used ordered logit models to examine the multivariate factors associated with increasing age-group membership.
American Journal of Human Biology: The Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
Frontier populations provide exceptional opportunities to test the hypothesis of a trade-off between fertility and longevity. In such populations, mechanisms favoring reproduction usually find fertile ground, and if these mechanisms reduce longevity, demographers should observe higher postreproductive mortality among highly fertile women.
The Journal of Rural Health: Official Journal of the American Rural Health Association and the National Rural Health Care Association
CONTEXT: The 2000 US Census identified 50,454 Americans over the age of 100. Increased longevity is only of benefit if accompanied by maintenance of independence and quality of life. Little is known about the prevalence of dementia and other disabling conditions among rural centenarians although this information is important to clinicians caring for them. PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence of disabling conditions, including cognitive impairment, among the very elderly in a rural setting to guide clinicians in their care.
International Journal of Aging & Human Development
The primary objective of the Iowa Centenarian Study is to further our understanding of determinants of exceptional longevity above and beyond health outcomes, particularly in rural environments. This introductory article provides a general overview of the study, its methodology and basic descriptive results. One hundred and fifty-two centenarians from a rural state participated in the study (average age was 101.6 years).
The study of actual nutrition in old-aged subjects (60-74, 75-89 and 90 years and older) in the regions with varying levels of long-living has revealed different types of nutrition depending on the climatic and geographical zones. The character of nutrition of old-aged in varying regions permits a suggestion on the relation of long-living with low energy requirements that are formed under the influence of ecological conditions (high temperature and humidity of the air in Abkhazia) and determined genetically (Azerbaijan, Ukraine).
Data from several studies are presented which suggest that the traditional Greek diet still exists in several parts of Greece and several segments of the population. The most profound changes in dietary intakes in recent years concern the increase in the consumption of meat and the decrease in the consumption of pulses.
The health (self-reported health conditions) and nutritional status (food and nutrient intake, nutritional biochemistry, anthropometry) of 189 elderly Greeks living in Melbourne, Australia were described and compared with 104 elderly Greeks living in a rural town in Greece (Spata) using a validated health and food frequency questionnaire. Spata was chosen because the traditional diet is maintained by the community and may act as a 'surrogate' measure of diets prevalent in Greece prior to the Melbourne sample's migration to Australia in the 1960s.
[Nihon K?sh? Eisei Zasshi] Japanese Journal of Public Health
To investigate survival factors in healthy aging among rural Japanese elderly residents, a nested case-control study was conducted. Subjects who answered questionnaires in 1985 were followed for 10 years. Cases comprised 124 men and 109 women who, in 1995, were 75 years old or over, and whose activities of daily living were active enough to cope for themselves. Controls were selected from subjects who died between 1987 and 1994. One control per case was randomly selected, and matched to each case for sex and birth-year (+/- 2 years).
In populations in sub-Saharan Africa, transitional changes in patterns of morbidity and mortality are taking place, with decreases in the diseases of poverty and infection, but rises in chronic diseases of prosperity, associated, however, with greater longevity. Remarkably, bowel diseases - appendicitis, diverticular disease, colon cancer - while nearly absent in rural areas, have very low incidences in urban dwellers, despite rises in risk factors, including a decreasing intake of fibre-containing foods.