BACKGROUND: Xerostomia is the subjective sensation of dry mouth. Common causes of xerostomia include adverse effects of many commonly prescribed medications, disease (e.g. Sjogren's Syndrome) and radiotherapy treatment for head and neck cancers. Non-pharmacological techniques such as acupuncture or mild electrostimulation may be used to improve symptoms. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of non-pharmacological interventions administered to stimulate saliva production for the relief of dry mouth.
Effects of ifenprodil tartrate, a potent vasodilator, on the autonomic, peripheral and central nerve system were studied in experimental animals. In isolated vas deferens of guinea pigs, the contraction in response to noradrenaline and sympathetic nerve stimulation was competetively antagonized by ifenprodil 10(-7)--10(-5) M (pA2: 7.69 against noradrenaline). Ifenprodil (50 approximately 1,000 mug/kg i.v.) inhibited the contraction of cat nictitating membrane and dog urinary bladder induced by sympathetic nerve stimulation.
Dentally induced stress and relaxation-induced anxiety reduction recently have been correlated with salivary changes in private patients treated by a solo endodontist. Hypnosis was shown to be more effective than local anesthesia in anxiety reduction. Dental students and clinic patients were employed in this study in an attempt to replicate the previous findings. One additional salivary variable (pH) was examined. Twenty-nine endodontic clinic patients were treated, each by a different dental student.
Cesium chloride (CsCl) at several dose levels (1.25-20.0 mEq/kg IP) was administered acutely to albino mice whose behavior was compared with that in corresponding saline controls. Motor activity decreased and Straub tail occurred in a dose-related manner. Signs of autonomic disturbance, diarrhea, and salivation were seen with toxic doses. Subchronic administration of CsCl (5.0 mEq/kg/day IP for 7 days) exerted a phenothiazine-like effect in mice, reducing amphetamine-induced aggregation toxicity and enhancing pentobarbital-induced hypnosis.
Effect of photo-acoustic stimulation on the flow rate and protein concentration of whole saliva was investigated. 10 medical students' and 11 edentulous patients' salivary volume and protein concentrations were measured before, during, and after stimulation. The flow rate of the students' group was significantly higher (p < or = 0.01) before and after the treatment, whereas the protein concentration was significantly lower (p < or = 0.05) before, during and after treatment comparing to the patients' group.
In this article, the nature of hypnosis will be discussed, together with its therapeutic/facilitator role in the control of the potential problems that occur in everyday dental practice. It is the vital relationship between a patient and therapist which produces the desired results of hypnotherapy. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: A holistic approach, in patient care, emphasizes the treatment of an individual who has a dental problem.