Saponins

Publication Title: 
Planta Medica

Terminalia species are a rich source of tannins. Many preparations of these species are used in traditional medicine and have many different ethnobotanical applications. A simple UHPLC method was developed for the simultaneous analysis of such hydrolysable tannins and triterpene saponins from the fruit rinds of different species of Terminalia (T. chebula, T. arjuna, T. bellirica) and Phyllantus emblica. A separation by LC was achieved using a reversed-phase column and a water/acetonitrile mobile phase, both containing formic acid, using a gradient system and a temperature of 40°C.

Author(s): 
Avula, Bharathi
Wang, Yan-Hong
Wang, Mei
Shen, Yun-Heng
Khan, Ikhlas A.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Asian Natural Products Research

Two new triterpenoids, termichebuloside A (1), an unusual dimeric triterpenoid saponin, and termichebulolide (2), an oleanolic acid-type lactone, along with 11 known triterpenoids, were isolated from MeOH extract of the barks of Terminalia chebula. The structures of 1 and 2 were elucidated to be arjunglucoside I-(3-O-19',23-O-19')-18,19-seco-19-hydroxyarjunglucoside I (1) and 2?,3?,23-trihydroxyolean-11,13(18)-dien-28,19?-olide (2), respectively, on the basis of spectroscopic evidences and biogenetic consideration.

Author(s): 
Zhang, Chao
Jiang, Kun
Qu, Shi-Jin
Zhai, Yi-Ming
Tan, Jun-Jie
Tan, Chang-Heng
Publication Title: 
Animal Science Journal = Nihon Chikusan Gakkaiho

This study investigates the effects of Terminalia chebula Retz. meal supplementation on rumen fermentation and methane (CH4 ) production by using an in vitro gas technique. The experimental design was a completely randomized design (CRD) and the dietary treatments were T. chebula supplementation at 0, 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20?mg with 0.5?g of roughage and concentrate ratio at 60:40. The results revealed that cumulative gas production (96?h of incubation) were higher (P?<?0.01) with T. chebula supplementation at 12, 16 and 20?mg than other treatments.

Author(s): 
Anantasook, Nirawan
Wanapat, Metha
Gunun, Pongsatorn
Cherdthong, Anusorn
Publication Title: 
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences

Dietary caloric restriction (CR) is the only intervention conclusively and reproducibly shown to slow aging and maintain health and vitality in mammals. Although this paradigm has been known for over 60 years, its precise biological mechanisms and applicability to humans remain unknown. We began addressing the latter question in 1987 with the first controlled study of CR in primates (rhesus and squirrel monkeys, which are evolutionarily much closer to humans than the rodents most frequently employed in CR studies).

Author(s): 
Roth, G. S.
Ingram, D. K.
Lane, M. A.
Publication Title: 
Archives Internationales De Pharmacodynamie Et De Thérapie
Author(s): 
Malhotra, C. L.
Das, P. K.
Dhalla, N. S.
Publication Title: 
Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

The leaf extract of E. neriifolia significantly reduced apomorphine-induced stereotypy in mice at all doses (100, 200, 400 mg/kg body weight) in mice and rats and was devoid of catalepsic effect thereby, suggesting specific dopaminergic receptor modulating activity. The extract (400 mg/kg) potentiated pentobarbitone-induced hypnosis. It showed protection against maximal electro-shock-induced convulsion at 400 mg/kg. E. neriifolia leaf extract had anxiolytic action at 400 mg/kg by increasing the percentage of time spent in open arm in elevated plus-maze.

Author(s): 
Bigoniya, Papiya
Rana, A. C.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Ethnopharmacology

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Semen Ziziphi Spinosae, the seed of Ziziphus jujuba Mill. var. spinosa (bunge) Hu ex H.F. Chow has been widely used in treating insomnia and anxiety. AIM OF THE STUDY: In this study, we investigated the hypnotic effect of jujubosides, one of the major components (saponin) of Semen Ziziphi Spinosae, in both day and night period.

Author(s): 
Cao, Jie-Xin
Zhang, Qing-Ying
Cui, Su-Ying
Cui, Xiang-Yu
Zhang, Juan
Zhang, Yong-He
Bai, Yan-Jing
Zhao, Yu-ying
Publication Title: 
Pharmaceutical Biology

In the present study, the anxiolytic and sedative-hypnotic activities of polygalasaponins extracted from Polygala tenuifolia Willdenow (Polygalaceae) were determined in mice using hole-board, elevated plus maze, open field, and sodium pentobarbital-induced hypnosis tests. Moreover, the acute toxicity of polygalasaponins was also estimated in mice. Sixty minutes after p.o.

Author(s): 
Yao, Yi
Jia, Min
Wu, Jian-Guo
Zhang, Hong
Sun, Lian-Na
Chen, Wan-Sheng
Rahman, Khalid
Publication Title: 
Journal of Ethnopharmacology

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Rhizoma Paridis saponins (RPS) have been well studied for antimicrobial, anti-hemorrhagic, and anticancer effects. However, scientific information on RPS regarding the toxic and neuropharmacological effects is limited. In this study, the acute oral toxicity, sedative-hypnotic activity and gastro-intestinal toxicity of RPS were investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The acute toxicity was carried out by administering single doses (800-5000 mg/kg) of RPS to adult mice.

Author(s): 
Liu, Zhen
Gao, Wenyuan
Man, Shuli
Wang, Jieyin
Li, Nan
Yin, Shuangshuang
Wu, Shanshan
Liu, Changxiao
Publication Title: 
Pharmaceutical Biology

CONTEXT: Fruits of Ternstroemia sylvatica Schltdl. and Cham. (Theaceae) are used in Mexican traditional medicine to alleviate anxiety, sleep disorders and seizures; however, the active principles have not been identified. OBJECTIVE: To identify the neuroactive principles of T. sylvatica fruits using neuropharmacological tests on mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The methanol and aqueous extracts of pericarp or seeds of T. sylvatica fruits were intraperitoneally administered (1-562?mg/kg, single doses) to mice.

Author(s): 
Balderas-López, José Luis
Alfaro-Romero, Alejandro
Monroy, Amor
López-Villafranco, Ma Edith
Rivero-Cruz, José Fausto
Navarrete, Andrés

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