Dietary caloric restriction (CR) is the only intervention conclusively and reproducibly shown to slow aging and maintain health and vitality in mammals. Although this paradigm has been known for over 60 years, its precise biological mechanisms and applicability to humans remain unknown. We began addressing the latter question in 1987 with the first controlled study of CR in primates (rhesus and squirrel monkeys, which are evolutionarily much closer to humans than the rodents most frequently employed in CR studies).
The leaf extract of E. neriifolia significantly reduced apomorphine-induced stereotypy in mice at all doses (100, 200, 400 mg/kg body weight) in mice and rats and was devoid of catalepsic effect thereby, suggesting specific dopaminergic receptor modulating activity. The extract (400 mg/kg) potentiated pentobarbitone-induced hypnosis. It showed protection against maximal electro-shock-induced convulsion at 400 mg/kg. E. neriifolia leaf extract had anxiolytic action at 400 mg/kg by increasing the percentage of time spent in open arm in elevated plus-maze.
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Semen Ziziphi Spinosae, the seed of Ziziphus jujuba Mill. var. spinosa (bunge) Hu ex H.F. Chow has been widely used in treating insomnia and anxiety. AIM OF THE STUDY: In this study, we investigated the hypnotic effect of jujubosides, one of the major components (saponin) of Semen Ziziphi Spinosae, in both day and night period.
In the present study, the anxiolytic and sedative-hypnotic activities of polygalasaponins extracted from Polygala tenuifolia Willdenow (Polygalaceae) were determined in mice using hole-board, elevated plus maze, open field, and sodium pentobarbital-induced hypnosis tests. Moreover, the acute toxicity of polygalasaponins was also estimated in mice. Sixty minutes after p.o.
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Rhizoma Paridis saponins (RPS) have been well studied for antimicrobial, anti-hemorrhagic, and anticancer effects. However, scientific information on RPS regarding the toxic and neuropharmacological effects is limited. In this study, the acute oral toxicity, sedative-hypnotic activity and gastro-intestinal toxicity of RPS were investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The acute toxicity was carried out by administering single doses (800-5000 mg/kg) of RPS to adult mice.
CONTEXT: Fruits of Ternstroemia sylvatica Schltdl. and Cham. (Theaceae) are used in Mexican traditional medicine to alleviate anxiety, sleep disorders and seizures; however, the active principles have not been identified. OBJECTIVE: To identify the neuroactive principles of T. sylvatica fruits using neuropharmacological tests on mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The methanol and aqueous extracts of pericarp or seeds of T. sylvatica fruits were intraperitoneally administered (1-562?mg/kg, single doses) to mice.
Candida albicans is an opportunistic and polymorphic fungal pathogen that causes mucosal, disseminated and invasive infections in humans. Transition from the yeast form to the hyphal form is one of the key virulence factors in C. albicans contributing to macrophage evasion, tissue invasion and biofilm formation. Nontoxic small molecules that inhibit C. albicans yeast-to-hypha conversion and hyphal growth could represent a valuable source for understanding pathogenic fungal morphogenesis, identifying drug targets and serving as templates for the development of novel antifungal agents.
Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Bacopa monniera Wettst. (BM, syn. Herpestis monniera L; Scrophulariaceae), is an Ayurvedic drug used as a rasayana. Its fresh juice was earlier reported to have significant antiulcerogenic activity. In continuation, methanolic extract of BM (BME) standardized to bacoside-A content (percentage-38.0 +/- 0.9), when given in the dose of 10-50 mg/kg, twice daily for 5 days, showed dose-dependent anti-ulcerogenic on various gastric ulcer models induced by ethanol, aspirin, 2 h cold restraint stress and 4 h pylorus ligation.
Bacopa monnieri (L.) Wettst. (Brahmi) is a medicinal plant used as a memory enhancer in Ayurvedic medicines. Its active components are triterpenoid glycosides namely pseudojujubogenin and jujubogenin glycosides. In order to analyze these saponin glycosides, an enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) was developed using polyclonal antibodies against bacopaside I, one of the pseudojujubogenin glycosides found in the plant. Bacopaside I was conjugated with a bovine albumin serum (BSA) to prepare an immunogen.