Reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with a principal component analysis (PCA) method was used to distinguish the extract of notoginseng root from that of other species in the genus Panax . The content of 12 saponins in notoginseng root extracts from different sources was evaluated. Herbal extracts from different plant parts of notoginseng, Asian ginseng, and American ginseng were also evaluated.
Dietary supplements containing black cohosh are alternatives to conventional hormone replacement therapy in menopause. This study investigates the maximum tolerated dose of a 75% ethanol extract of black cohosh and determines the pharmacokinetics of one of its most abundant triterpene glycosides, 23-epi-26-deoxyactein. Single doses of black cohosh extract containing 1.4, 2.8, or 5.6 mg of 23-epi-26-deoxyactein were administered to 15 healthy, menopausal women.
The success of antitumor and antiviral vaccines often requires the use of an adjuvant, a substance that significantly enhances the immune response to a coadministered antigen. Only a handful of adjuvants have both sufficient potency and acceptable toxicity for clinical investigation. One promising adjuvant is QS-21, a saponin natural product that is the immunopotentiator of choice in many cancer and infectious disease vaccine clinical trials.
The saponin fraction QS-21 from Quillaja saponaria has been demonstrated to be a potent immunological adjuvant when mixed with keyhole limpet hemocyanin conjugate vaccines, as well as with other classes of subunit antigen vaccines. QS-21 adjuvant is composed of two isomers that include the apiose and xylose forms in a ratio of 65:35, respectively. The chemical syntheses of these two isomers in pure form have recently been disclosed. Herein we describe detailed in vivo immunological evaluations of these synthetic QS-21 isomeric constituents, employing the GD3-KLH melanoma antigen.
BACKGROUND: Rotavirus is the leading cause of severe diarrhea disease in newborns and young children worldwide, estimated to be responsible for over 300,000 childhood deaths every year, mostly in developing countries. Rotavirus-related deaths represent approximately 5% of all deaths in children younger than 5 years of age worldwide. Saponins are readily soluble in water and are approved by the US FDA for inclusion in beverages intended for human consumption. The addition of saponins to existing water supplies offers a new form of intervention into the cycle of rotavirus infection.
Protopanaxadiol (PPD), an aglycon of ginseng saponins, has shown anticancer activity in earlier studies. Here, we have reported the semisynthesis of nine PPD derivatives with acetyl substitutions. Subsequently, the antiproliferative effects of these nine analogs on different human cancer cell lines have been investigated. Compounds 1, 3, and 5 showed more significant and more potent antiproliferative activity compared with PPD and other derivatives.
The 95 % ethanol extract of Astragalus has been demonstrated to have potent activity as an immunological adjuvant when administered with vaccines of various types. We endeavor here to identify the components of this extract that are responsible for this adjuvant activity. Mice were immunized with KLH conjugated to cancer carbohydrate antigens globo H and GD3 and cancer peptide antigen MUC1 combined with different Astragalus fractions or with commercially available Astragalus saponins and flavonoids.
Radix Astragali (Huangqi) has been demonstrated to have a wide range of immunopotentiating effects and has been used as an adjuvant medicine during cancer therapy. Identity issues in the collection of Radix Astragali exist because many sympatric species of Astragalus occur in the northern regions of China. In order to assess the quality, purity, and uniformity of commercial Radix Astragali, 44 samples were purchased from herbal stores in Hong Kong and New York City.
Rotavirus is the leading cause of severe diarrhea disease in newborns and young children worldwide with approximately 300,000 pre-adolescent deaths each year. Quillaja saponins are a natural aqueous extract obtained from the Chilean soapbark tree. The extract is approved for use in humans by the FDA for use in beverages as a food addictive. We have demonstrated that Quillaja extracts have strong antiviral activities in vitro against six different viruses. In this study, we evaluated the in vivo antiviral activity of these extracts against rhesus rotavirus (RRV) using a mouse model.
Ginseng is an herbal medicine used worldwide. It is reported to have a wide range of pharmacological activities because of a diversified group of steroidal saponins called ginsenosides. Compared to extensive pharmacological studies of ginseng, the pharmacokinetics, especially the metabolism of this herb, has received less attention. In this article we review the known pharmacokinetic data on ginseng. Understanding ginseng's pharmacokinetics may reduce the potential for interactions in patients who use both ginseng and prescription medications.