Sarcopenia

Publication Title: 
Ageing Research Reviews

In this review, we describe recent advances in the field of RNA regulatory biology and relate these advances to aging science. We introduce a new term, RNA surveillance, an RNA regulatory process that is conserved in metazoans, and describe how RNA surveillance represents molecular cross-talk between two emerging RNA regulatory systems-RNA interference and RNA editing. We discuss how RNA surveillance mechanisms influence mRNA and microRNA expression and activity during lifespan.

Author(s): 
Montano, Monty
Long, Kimberly
Publication Title: 
Age (Dordrecht, Netherlands)

The myostatin (MSTN) gene is a candidate to influence extreme longevity owing to its role in modulating muscle mass and sarcopenia and especially in inhibiting the main nutrient-sensing pathway involved in longevity, i.e. mammalian target of rapamycin. We compared allele/genotype distributions of the exonic MSTN variants K153R (rs1805086), E164K (rs35781413), I225T and P198A, in Spanish centenarians (cases, n = 156; 132 women, age range 100-111 years) and younger adults (controls, n = 384; 167 women, age <50 years).

Author(s): 
Garatachea, Nuria
PinÛs, Tom‡s
C·mara, Yolanda
RodrÌguez-Romo, Gabriel
Emanuele, Enzo
Ricevuti, Giovanni
Venturini, Letizia
Santos-Lozano, Alejandro
Santiago-Dorrego, Catalina
Fiuza-Luces, Carmen
Yvert, Thomas
Andreu, Antoni L.
Lucia, Alejandro
Publication Title: 
Human Molecular Genetics

The CISD2 gene, which is an evolutionarily conserved novel gene, encodes a transmembrane protein primarily associated with the mitochondrial outer membrane. Significantly, the CISD2 gene is located within the candidate region on chromosome 4q where a genetic component for human longevity has been mapped. Previously, we have shown that Cisd2 deficiency shortens lifespan resulting in premature aging in mice. Additionally, an age-dependent decrease in Cisd2 expression has been detected during normal aging.

Author(s): 
Wu, Chia-Yu
Chen, Yi-Fan
Wang, Chih-Hao
Kao, Cheng-Heng
Zhuang, Hui-Wen
Chen, Chih-Cheng
Chen, Liang-Kung
Kirby, Ralph
Wei, Yau-Huei
Tsai, Shih-Feng
Tsai, Ting-Fen
Publication Title: 
Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The role of calorie restriction in humans is controversial. Recently, new data in monkeys and humans have provided new insights into the potential role of calorie restriction in longevity. RECENT FINDINGS: A study in rhesus monkeys showed a reduction in aging-associated mortality. A number of controlled studies have suggested a variety of beneficial effects during studies of 6-12 months in humans. Major negative effects in humans were loss of muscle mass, muscle strength and loss of bone.

Author(s): 
Morley, John E.
Chahla, Elie
Alkaade, Saad
Publication Title: 
The Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences

Caloric restriction and physical exercise have proven beneficial against age-associated changes in body composition and declining physical performance; however, little is known regarding what benefit these interventions might have when initiated late in life. The study of mimetics of diet and exercise and the combination thereof may provide additional treatments for a vulnerable elderly population; however, how and when to initiate such interventions requires consideration in developing the most safe and efficacious treatment strategies.

Author(s): 
Carter, Christy S.
Marzetti, Emanuele
Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan
Manini, Todd
Foster, Thomas C.
Groban, Leanne
Scarpace, Philip J.
Morgan, Drake
Publication Title: 
The British Journal of Nutrition

The determination of whether increased dietary protein can positively affect health outcomes is hindered by the absence of prospective, randomized trials directly addressing this issue in which all pertinent variables are controlled. Consequently, we can only address the question deductively by considering the support for the rationale underlying the notion of a beneficial effect of increased dietary protein intake. With regard to health outcomes, we have focused on older individuals.

Author(s): 
Wolfe, Robert R.
Publication Title: 
Experimental Gerontology

Aging is associated with a loss in muscle known as sarcopenia that is partially attributed to apoptosis. In aging rodents, caloric restriction (CR) increases health and longevity by improving mitochondrial function and the polyphenol resveratrol (RSV) has been reported to have similar benefits.

Author(s): 
Joseph, Anna-Maria
Malamo, Angelina G.
Silvestre, Jason
Wawrzyniak, Nick
Carey-Love, Sean
Nguyen, Linda M.-D.
Dutta, Debapriya
Xu, Jinze
Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan
Adhihetty, Peter J.
Publication Title: 
Aging

Sarcopenia refers to age-related loss of muscle mass and function. Several age-related changes occur in skeletal muscle including a decrease in myofiber size and number and a diminished ability of satellite cells to activate and proliferate upon injury leading to impaired muscle remodeling. Although the molecular mechanisms underlying sarcopenia are unknown, it is tempting to hypothesize that interplay between biological and environmental factors cooperate in a positive feedback cycle contributing to the progression of sarcopenia.

Author(s): 
Burks, Tyesha N.
Cohn, Ronald D.
Publication Title: 
Ageing Research Reviews

Advancing age and adiposity contribute to musculoskeletal degenerative diseases and the development of sarcopenic obesity. The etiology of muscle loss is multifactorial, and includes inflammation, oxidative stress and hormonal changes, and is worsened by activity avoidance due to fear of pain. The risk for mobility disability and functional impairment rises with severity of obesity in the older adult.

Author(s): 
Vincent, Heather K.
Raiser, Sara N.
Vincent, Kevin R.
Publication Title: 
Experimental Gerontology

Aging is associated with a loss in muscle known as sarcopenia that is partially attributed to apoptosis. In aging rodents, caloric restriction (CR) increases health and longevity by improving mitochondrial function and the polyphenol resveratrol (RSV) has been reported to have similar benefits.

Author(s): 
Joseph, Anna-Maria
Malamo, Angelina G.
Silvestre, Jason
Wawrzyniak, Nick
Carey-Love, Sean
Nguyen, Linda M.-D.
Dutta, Debapriya
Xu, Jinze
Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan
Adhihetty, Peter J.

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