Schistosoma japonicum

Publication Title: 
Zhongguo Yao Li Xue Bao = Acta Pharmacologica Sinica

Mice infected with 100 and 50 Schistosoma japonicum cercariae for 7 and 35 d respectively were treated with im artemether 100 mg.kg-1.d-1 or arteether 100 and 300 mg.kg-1.d-1 for 2 d. The mice were killed at different intervals within 28 d after medication and the livers were sectioned for histological and histochemical observations. The results showed that both artemether and arteether caused degeneration in the tegument, intestine and genital gland of the hepatic-shifted worms.

Author(s): 
Yin, J. W.
Yang, Y. Q.
Xiao, S. H.
Li, Y.
Jiang, H. J.
Publication Title: 
Zhongguo Yao Li Xue Bao = Acta Pharmacologica Sinica

Artemether (beta-methyl ether of artemisinin) first synthesized by Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences(1), appears in colorless crystal and is more lipid-soluble than artemisinin. When artemether was given ig or im to mice infected with Schistosoma japonicum for 32-35 d at the dosage of 1/10-1/2 LD50. Its effects in the two administration routes were similar.

Author(s): 
You, J. Q.
Mei, J. Y.
Xiao, S. H.
Publication Title: 
Zhongguo Yao Li Xue Bao = Acta Pharmacologica Sinica

The first single dose of praziquantel (Pra) was given ig to mice on the day of infection with Schistosoma japonicum cercariae, or 7 d, 14 d, and 21 d after infection. Afterwards, the same dose of Pra was given once at 1-3 wk intervals for 2-3 times. The prophylactic effect was estimated by the reduction of average number of total and female worms, the number of mice without female worm, and the gross change of the liver.

Author(s): 
Xiao, S. H.
You, J. Q.
Mei, J. Y.
Jiao, P. Y.
Publication Title: 
Zhongguo Yao Li Xue Bao = Acta Pharmacologica Sinica

AIM: To study the effect of artemether (Art) on the tegument of schistosomes. METHODS: Mice infected with S japonicum cercariae for 7 and 35 d, or with S mansoni cercariae for 49 d were treated intragastrically with Art 200-300 mg.kg-1.d-1 for 2 d. Schistosomes were collected in groups of 2 mice at various intervals after medication for scanning electron microscopic observation. RESULTS: The tegumental changes induced by Art appeared to be similar in S japonicum and S mansoni: swelling and fusion of tegumental surfaces, vesicle formation and collapse of discoid-like sensory structures.

Author(s): 
Xiao, S. H.
Shen, B. G.
Horner, J.
Catto, B. A.
Publication Title: 
Zhongguo Yao Li Xue Bao = Acta Pharmacologica Sinica

AIM: To study the effect of artemether (Art) on the thio proteinase ("hemoglobinase", Hem) of Schistosoma japonicum. METHODS: Hem was extracted from S japonicum adults. The inhibitory effect of Art on the activity of Hem to degrade human hemoglobin (Hgb) was examined with UV-photometer at 280 nm, SDS-PAGE and scanning at 600 nm on a chromoscanner. RESULTS: Human Hgb was degraded at pH 4.0 by the Hem. The activities of Hem preincubated at 37 degrees C with Art 0.14, 1.4, and 14 mmol.L-1, were inhibited by 30.2%, 39.8%, and 45.0%, respectively.

Author(s): 
Gong, P. L.
Li, Y. L.
Feng, Y. R.
Publication Title: 
Zhongguo Yao Li Xue Bao = Acta Pharmacologica Sinica

AIM: To study the effect of artemether (Art) on glucose uptake and glycogen content in schistosomes. METHODS: Schistosomes recovered from mice treated intragastrically with Art 300 mg.kg-1 for 24-48 h, were incubated in the drug-free medium containing [U-14C]glucose 11.1 MBq.L-1. The glycogen content, [U-14C]glucose uptake, and incorporation of [U-14C]glucose into worm glycogen in both male and female worms were determined.

Author(s): 
Xiao, S. H.
You, J. Q.
Mei, J. Y.
Guo, H. F.
Jiao, P. Y.
Sun, H. L.
Yao, M. Y.
Feng, Z.
Publication Title: 
Zhongguo Yao Li Xue Bao = Acta Pharmacologica Sinica

AIM: To study the effect of artemether (Art) on glyceraldehyde-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK), and pyruvate kinase (PK) of S japanicum. METHODS: Mice infected with schistosome cercariae for 32-38 d were treated ig with Art 100-300 mg.kg-1 and killed 24-72 h after medication for collection of schistosomes. The activities of GAPDH, PGK, and PK of the worms were determined by measuring the formation of NADH or consumption of NAD. The lactate content of the worms was also measured.

Author(s): 
Xiao, S. H.
You, J. Q.
Guo, H. F.
Jiao, P. Y.
Mei, J. Y.
Yao, M. Y.
Feng, Z.
Publication Title: 
Zhongguo Yao Li Xue Bao = Acta Pharmacologica Sinica

AIM: To study the effect of artemether (Art) for prevention of schistosomal infection. METHODS: Rabbits with single infection or reinfection with Schistosoma japonicum cercariae were treated intramuscularly (i.m.) or intragastrically (i.g.) with Art 5 -20 mg.kg-1 on d 7-15 after the first infection, followed by various regimens. RESULTS: When rabbits were injected i.m. Art 7.5 mg.kg-1 (i.e., one half of the effective dose given i.g. on d 7) followed by once every week for twice, the female worm reduction rate was only 42%. In infected rabbits treated i.g.

Author(s): 
Xiao, S. H.
You, J. Q.
Mei, J. Y.
Jiao, P. Y.
Guo, H. F.
Feng, Z.
Publication Title: 
Zhongguo Yao Li Xue Bao = Acta Pharmacologica Sinica

AIM: To study the effect of artemether (Art) on phosphorylase (PP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH), and adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) of S japonicum. METHODS: Mice infected with S. japonicum cercariae for 32-38 d were treated i.g. with Art 100-300 mg.kg-1 and killed 24-72 h after treatment for collection of schistosomes. The activities of PP, LDH, and G-6-PDH were measured by the formation of NADH or NADPH. The activity of ATPase was measured by the rate of release of inorganic phosphate (Pi) from ATP at 37 degrees C.

Author(s): 
Xiao, S. H.
You, J. Q.
Guo, H. F.
Mei, J. Y.
Jiao, P. Y.
Yao, M. Y.
Zhuang, Z. N.
Feng, Z.
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

Artemether (ART) is a well-described antimalarial with efficacy against juvenile schistosomes, with 7-day-old schistosomula being particularly susceptible. Both ART-affected worms and parasites developing from irradiated cercariae die at similar times after infection. Our aim was to determine if ART treatment of prepatent schistosomiasis japonica may result in the generation of a protective immune response. Female CBA mice were treated with a single dose of ART at defined time points after percutaneous infection with a virulent Chinese mainland strain of Schistosoma japonicum.

Author(s): 
Bartley, Paul B.
Glanfield, Amber
Li, Yuesheng
Stanisic, Danielle I.
Duke, Mary
Jones, Malcolm K.
McManus, Donald P.

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