Schistosoma mansoni

Publication Title: 
Nature

Schistosomiasis is among the most prevalent human parasitic diseases, affecting more than 200 million people worldwide. The aetiological agents of this disease are trematode flatworms (Schistosoma) that live and lay eggs within the vasculature of the host. These eggs lodge in host tissues, causing inflammatory responses that are the primary cause of morbidity. Because these parasites can live and reproduce within human hosts for decades, elucidating the mechanisms that promote their longevity is of fundamental importance.

Author(s): 
Collins, James J.
Wang, Bo
Lambrus, Bramwell G.
Tharp, Marla E.
Iyer, Harini
Newmark, Phillip A.
Publication Title: 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

To determine whether artemether, a derivative of the antimalarial agent qinghaosu, is therapeutically active against Schistosoma mansoni, we determined the in vitro, in vivo, and histopathologic effects of the drug on S. mansoni worms. In vitro, toxic effects of artemether on S. mansoni were not seen at concentrations of less than 100 micrograms/ml. However, in vivo, 30 and 50% reductions in the lengths of male and female worms, respectively, were observed 14 days after treatment. By 56 days worm dimensions had returned to control values.

Author(s): 
Xiao, S. H.
Catto, B. A.
Publication Title: 
Memórias Do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz

The action of the ether of artemisinin (artemether) on Schistosoma mansoni in mice and hamsters experimentally infected with the LE strain was studied. In mice, the drug showed high schistosomicidal activity using a single intramuscular dose of 100 mg/kg/day. By the oral route, this dose showed a low activity. Mice treated with a single intramuscular dose of 200 mg/kg/day, and examined 15 days after treatment, presented 100% alteration of the oogram; when examined 45 days after treatment, the oogram was normal.

Author(s): 
Araújo, N.
Kohn, A.
Katz, N.
Publication Title: 
Zhongguo Yao Li Xue Bao = Acta Pharmacologica Sinica

AIM: To study the effect of artemether (Art) on the tegument of schistosomes. METHODS: Mice infected with S japonicum cercariae for 7 and 35 d, or with S mansoni cercariae for 49 d were treated intragastrically with Art 200-300 mg.kg-1.d-1 for 2 d. Schistosomes were collected in groups of 2 mice at various intervals after medication for scanning electron microscopic observation. RESULTS: The tegumental changes induced by Art appeared to be similar in S japonicum and S mansoni: swelling and fusion of tegumental surfaces, vesicle formation and collapse of discoid-like sensory structures.

Author(s): 
Xiao, S. H.
Shen, B. G.
Horner, J.
Catto, B. A.
Publication Title: 
Memórias Do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz

Progress has been made over the last decade with the development and clinical use of artemether as an agent against major human schistosome parasites. The tegument has been identified as a key target of artemether, implying detailed studies on ultrastructural damage induced by this compound. We performed a temporal examination, employing a transmission electron microscope to assess the pattern and extent of ultrastructural alterations in adult Schistosoma mansoni harboured in mice treated with a single dose of 400 mg/kg artemether.

Author(s): 
Xiao, Shuhua
Shen, Binggui
Utzinger, Jürg
Chollet, Jacques
Tanner, Marcel
Publication Title: 
Revista De Saúde Pública

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of intramuscular injection of artemether in mice experimentally infected with Schistosoma mansoni, at the time of infection, during schistosomula maturation and after the beginning of egg-laying. METHODS: Eighty adult females Balb/c mice were divided into 8 groups with 10 animals each. Seven groups were infected with S. mansoni using 60 cercariae for each animal, inoculated subcutaneously, and the remaining group was maintained without infection.

Author(s): 
Lescano, Susana Zevallos
Chieffi, Pedro Paulo
Canhassi, Rosa Regina
Boulos, Marcos
Amato Neto, Vicente
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

Immune effector mechanisms can enhance the activity of antischistosomal drugs. We examined the in vivo effect of single oral doses of the antimalarials artemether (400 mg/kg) and mefloquine (200 mg/kg), recently described to have promising antischistosomal properties, against juvenile and adult Schistosoma mansoni in T cell-deficient and in comparably infected age- and sex-matched immunologically intact control mice. Artemether and mefloquine are equally effective in athymic and immunocompetent mice.

Author(s): 
Keiser, Jennifer
Vargas, Mireille
Doenhoff, Michael J.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology

Alternative antischistosomal drugs are required since praziquantel is virtually the only drug available for treatment and morbidity control of schistosomiasis. Manual microscopic reading is the current "gold standard" to assess the in vitro antischistosomal properties of test drugs; however, it is labor-intensive, subjective, and difficult to standardize. Hence, there is a need to develop novel tools for antischistosomal drug discovery.

Author(s): 
Manneck, Theresia
Braissant, Olivier
Haggenmüller, Yolanda
Keiser, Jennifer
Publication Title: 
Journal of Infection in Developing Countries

INTRODUCTION: The distribution of both malaria and schistosomiasis exhibits a large geographical overlap in tropical environments, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. This part of the world currently harbours more than 85% of the estimated global burden of these diseases. Studies showed that artemisinin derivatives used for the treatment of malaria also have an antischistosomal effect.

Author(s): 
Abay, Solomon M.
Tilahun, Mulugeta
Fikrie, Nigus
Habtewold, Abiy
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