Schwann Cells

Publication Title: 
Biologie Aujourd'hui

Melanocytes, the pigmented cells of the skin, and the glial Schwann cells lining peripheral nerves are developmentally derived from an early and transient ectodermal structure of the vertebrate embryo, the neural crest, which is also at the origin of multiple neural and non-neural cell types. Besides melanocytes and neural cells of the peripheral nervous system, the neural crest cells give rise to mesenchymal cell types in the head, which form most of the craniofacial skeleton, dermis, fat tissue and vascular musculo-connective components.

Author(s): 
Dupin, Elisabeth
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Biological Chemistry

Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is an autosomal dominant disease that predisposes individuals to develop benign neurofibromas and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs). Due to the lack of information on the molecular mechanism of NF1-associated tumor pathogenesis or biomarkers/therapeutic targets, an effective treatment for NF1 tumors has not been established.

Author(s): 
Kobayashi, Daiki
Hirayama, Mio
Komohara, Yoshihiro
Mizuguchi, Souhei
Wilson Morifuji, Masayo
Ihn, Hironobu
Takeya, Motohiro
Kuramochi, Akira
Araki, Norie
Publication Title: 
American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism

In human Schwann cells, the role of taurine in regulating glucose-induced changes in antioxidant defense systems has been examined. Treatment with high glucose for 7 days induced reactive oxygen species, increased 4-hydroxynoneal adducts (20 +/- 5%, P < 0.05) and poly(ADP-ribosyl)ated proteins (40 +/- 13%, P < 0.05). Increases in these markers of oxidative stress were reversed by simultaneous incubation in 0.25 mM taurine.

Author(s): 
Askwith, Trevor
Zeng, Wei
Eggo, Margaret C.
Stevens, Martin J.
Publication Title: 
Experimental Neurology

The role of taurine in regulating glucose-induced nitrosative stress has been examined in human Schwann cells, a model for understanding the pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy. Exposure to high glucose increased nitrated proteins (1.56 fold p<0.05), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and neuronal NOS (nNOS) mRNA expression (1.55 fold and 2.2 fold respectively, p<0.05 both), phospho-p38 MAPK (1.32 fold, p<0.05) abundance and decreased Schwann cell growth (11±2%, p<0.05).

Author(s): 
Askwith, Trevor
Zeng, Wei
Eggo, Margaret C.
Stevens, Martin J.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Neuroscience: The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience

An important prerequisite to myelination in peripheral nerves is the establishment of one-to-one relationships between axons and Schwann cells. This patterning event depends on immature Schwann cell proliferation, apoptosis, and morphogenesis, which are governed by coordinated changes in gene expression.

Author(s): 
Iruarrizaga-Lejarreta, Marta
Varela-Rey, Marta
Lozano, Juan Jose
Fernández-Ramos, David
Rodríguez-Ezpeleta, Naiara
Embade, Nieves
Lu, Shelly C.
van der Kraan, Peter M.
Blaney Davidson, Esmeralda N.
Gorospe, Myriam
Mirsky, Rhona
Jessen, Kristján R.
Aransay, Ana María
Mato, José M.
Martínez-Chantar, María L.
Woodhoo, Ashwin
Publication Title: 
PloS One

Radix aconite lateralis preparata (Fuzi), a folk medicine, has long been used for the treatment of diabetes and paralysis in China. We examined the effect of Fuzi alone on diabetic rats and Schwann cells in high glucose and the components responsible for its activity. The major constituents of FZE were identified by HPLC-MS/MS data. Male Sprague Dawley rats (n = 36) were randomly divided into control, diabetic, FZE 1.75 g/kg, FZE 3.50 g/kg, FZE 7.00 g/kg, and methylcobalamin groups. After two weeks treatment, nerve conduction velocity and paw withdrawal latency were measured.

Author(s): 
Han, Jing
Tan, Peng
Li, Zhiyong
Wu, Yan
Li, Chun
Wang, Yong
Wang, Beibei
Zhao, Shuang
Liu, Yonggang
Publication Title: 
Neurobiology of Disease

Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A (CMT1A) neuropathies linked to the misexpression of peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22) are progressive demyelinating disorders of the peripheral nervous system. In this study we asked whether dietary restriction by intermittent fasting (IF) could alleviate the neuropathic phenotype in the Trembler J (TrJ) mouse model of CMT1A. Our results show that neuropathic mice kept on a five month long IF regimen had improved locomotor performance compared to ad libitum (AL) fed littermates.

Author(s): 
Madorsky, Irina
Opalach, Katherine
Waber, Amanda
Verrier, Jonathan D.
Solmo, Chelsea
Foster, Thomas
Dunn, William A.
Notterpek, Lucia
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