International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research. Internationale Zeitschrift F¸r Vitamin- Und Ern‰hrungsforschung. Journal International De Vitaminologie Et De Nutrition
Vitamin E and carotenoid pigments are important nutrients for the maintenance of health and protection of tissues against free radical damage. They also play a potential role in disease-risk-prediction and -protection, but little is known about their physiological and sociodemographic correlates and determinants, especially in a West African context. As part of a study of reproductive health in rural Gambian women, blood samples were obtained from 1286 women aged 15 to 54 years, living in the Farafenni area of The Gambia.
Few time series of deep-sea systems exist from which the factors affecting abyssal fish populations can be evaluated. Previous analysis showed an increase in grenadier abundance, in the eastern North Pacific, which lagged epibenthic megafaunal abundance, mostly echinoderms, by 9-20 months. Subsequent diet studies suggested that carrion is the grenadier's most important food. Our goal was to evaluate if changes in carrion supply might drive the temporal changes in grenadier abundance.
Two studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of postweaning management of British crossbred heifers on growth and reproduction. In Exp. 1, 239 spring-born, crossbred heifers were stratified by weaning BW (234 ± 1 kg) and allotted randomly to 1 of 2 treatments. Treatments were fed at a rate equivalent to 1.14 kg/d while grazing dormant forage (6.5% CP and 80% NDF, DM basis) and were 1) 36% CP containing 36% RUP (36RUP) or 2) 36% CP containing 50% RUP (50RUP).
Environmental variations are usually thought to require a nonanecdotal intensity or duration to have major effects on individuals and evolutionary outputs. However, environmental variations of weak intensity and short duration could be of major importance when they influence key targets or critical stages. Because conditions experienced early in life can be critical determinants of life history trajectories, especially early nutrition, we tested this hypothesis by experimentally manipulating the first meal of life in the lizard Zootoca vivipara.
There is increasing interest in the nature and biological significance of romantic love but few quantitative data are available for testing specific hypotheses. This paper describes the use of a survey instrument to assess incidence and duration of romantic attractions over a 2-year period amongst students (121 male; 162 female) progressing from school to university education. The results for males and females were similar and schooling single-sex or co-educational--had little effect.
The song control system of songbirds displays a remarkable seasonal neuroplasticity in species in which song output also changes seasonally. Thus far, this song control system has been extensively analyzed by histological and electrophysiological methods. However, these approaches do not provide a global view of the brain and/or do not allow repeated measurements, which are necessary to establish causal correlations between alterations in neural substrate and behavior.
The paper seeks to examine the economic impact of malaria in the Sudan. Using longitudinal empirical data from a farming population in the Gezira, it examines and quantifies labour losses through malaria within families, observing simultaneously the manner in which altruism or "nafeer" helps families and communities insure their members against disease and other consequences of uncertainty.
New antimalarial drugs are urgently needed. The use of short courses of the new antimalarial drug artemether as monotherapy has been limited by secondary malaria episodes following parasite clearance. Therefore, a new antimalarial drug, CGP 56697, has been developed, which combines artemether with a longer-acting antimalarial agent, benflumetol. A safety trial was undertaken in 60 Gambian children 1-6 years old with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. All children treated with CGP 56697 cleared their parasites 72 h after the start of treatment.
As part of a study to assess the infectivity of gametocytes after treatment with four antimalarial regimens, the efficacy of each treatment was also determined. From September to December 1998, 598 children with uncomplicated malaria were treated; 135 received chloroquine (CQ) alone, 276 received pyrimethamine/sulfadoxine (Fansidar, PSD) alone, 113 received PSD with a single dose of artesunate (PSD + 1ART) and 74 received PSD combined with three doses of artesunate (PSD + 3ART). On day 28 19/63 (30.2%; 95% C.I. 19.2% to 43.1%) of children treated with CQ alone, 5/134 (3.7%; 95% C.I.
In the Sahel, most malaria deaths occur among children 1-4 years old during a short transmission season. A trial of seasonal intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) and a single dose of artesunate (AS) showed an 86% reduction in the incidence of malaria in Senegal but this may not be the optimum regimen. We compared this regimen with three alternatives.