Selection, Genetic

Publication Title: 
Medical Hypotheses

Cognitive plasticity, a developmental trait that promotes acquisition of complex skills such as language or playing musical instruments, diminishes substantially during puberty. The loss of plasticity has been attributed to surge of sex steroids during adolescence, but the phenomenon remains poorly understood. We hypothesize that pineal involution during puberty may contribute to plasticity decay. The pineal gland produces melatonin, the level of which declines dramatically during onset of puberty.

Author(s): 
Yun, A. Joon
Bazar, Kimberly A.
Lee, Patrick Y.
Publication Title: 
Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism

Sex differences in lifespan exist world-wide, with women outliving men by more than a decade in some countries. The gender gap is not a uniquely human phenomenon; most sexually reproducing species examined show sex differences in patterns of ageing, yet a comprehensive explanation does not exist. Here, we discuss how ageing responds to natural selection on traits that arise as a consequence of sexuality.

Author(s): 
Regan, Jennifer C.
Partridge, Linda
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Experimental Biology

In animals, longevity (maximal lifespan) is inversely related to mass-specific basal metabolic rates. However, contrary to expectation, in several mammalian taxa, exceptional longevity is associated with high basal metabolic rate, and also fast evolution of mtDNA-coded proteins. The association of these traits was suggested to result from adaptive selection of mutations in mtDNA-coded proteins, which accelerates basal respiration, thus inhibiting the generation of reactive oxygen species that constrain longevity.

Author(s): 
Rottenberg, Hagai
Publication Title: 
Gerontology

This short review portrays the evolutionary theories of aging in the light of the existing discoveries from genomic and molecular genetic studies on aging and longevity. At the outset, an historical background for the development of the evolutionary theories of aging is presented through the works of August Weismann (programmed death and the germ plasm theories) including his exceptional theoretical postulation, later experimentally validated by the existence of cell division limits.

Author(s): 
Ljubuncic, Predrag
Reznick, Abraham Z.
Publication Title: 
Current biology: CB

Understanding why and how senescence evolved is of great importance in investigating the multiple, complex mechanisms that influence the course of ageing in humans and other organisms. Compelling arguments eliminate the idea that death is generally programmed by genes for ageing, but there is still a widespread tendency to interpret data in terms of loosely defined 'age regulation', which does not usually make either evolutionary or mechanistic sense.

Author(s): 
Kirkwood, Thomas B. L.
Melov, Simon
Publication Title: 
BMC cancer

BACKGROUND: Peto's paradox stipulates that there is no association between body mass (a surrogate of number of cells and longevity) and cancer prevalence in wildlife species. Resolving this paradox is a very promising research direction to understand mechanisms of cancer resistance. As of present, research has been focused on the consequences of these evolutionary pressures rather than of their causes.

Author(s): 
Roche, Benjamin
Hochberg, Michael E.
Caulin, Aleah F.
Maley, Carlo C.
Gatenby, Robert A.
Misse, DorothÈe
Thomas, FrÈdÈric
Publication Title: 
BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology

Why do the two sexes have different lifespans and rates of aging? Two hypotheses based on asymmetric inheritance of sex chromosomes ("unguarded X") or mitochondrial genomes ("mother's curse") explain sex differences in lifespan as sex-specific maladaptation leading to increased mortality in the shorter-lived sex. While asymmetric inheritance hypotheses equate long life with high fitness, considerable empirical evidence suggests that sexes resolve the fundamental tradeoff between reproduction and survival differently resulting in sex-specific optima for lifespan.

Author(s): 
Maklakov, Alexei A.
Lummaa, Virpi
Publication Title: 
Trends in genetics: TIG

Physicochemical properties preclude ideal biomolecules and perfect biological functions. This inherent imperfectness leads to the generation of damage by every biological process, at all levels, from small molecules to cells. The damage is too numerous to be repaired, is partially invisible to natural selection, and manifests as aging. I propose that the inherent imperfectness of biological systems is the true root of the aging process. Because each biomolecule generates specific forms of damage, the cumulative damage is largely non-random and is indirectly encoded in the genome.

Author(s): 
Gladyshev, Vadim N.
Publication Title: 
Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism

Sex differences in lifespan exist world-wide, with women outliving men by more than a decade in some countries. The gender gap is not a uniquely human phenomenon; most sexually reproducing species examined show sex differences in patterns of ageing, yet a comprehensive explanation does not exist. Here, we discuss how ageing responds to natural selection on traits that arise as a consequence of sexuality.

Author(s): 
Regan, Jennifer C.
Partridge, Linda
Publication Title: 
Scientific American
Author(s): 
Rose, M. R.

Pages

Subscribe to RSS - Selection, Genetic