Self Medication

Publication Title: 
Psychiatry

Psychoanalytic theorists concerned with substance abuse suggest that the affect tolerance and affect expression of addicts are impaired due to preverbal influences. However, psychoanalytic contributions have largely been limited to clinical speculations and case study reports. The present study investigated the hypotheses that opiate abusers will demonstrate more impaired affect tolerance and affect expression than cocaine abusers, and that both groups would appear more impaired than a sample of normals.

Author(s): 
Keller, D. S.
Wilson, A.
Publication Title: 
Primary Care

Numerous vitamins, herbs, supplements, and other agents are readily available for the treatment of diabetes and obesity. Many of these products have little evidence-based medical support to prove the efficacy of these supplements. The physician must be aware that their patients are using these products and must be knowledgeable about their side effects and drug-herb interactions. Our patients have tremendous access to medical information in the lay literature and on the internet. They are using this information to gain access to various diet therapies.

Author(s): 
Roth, Alan
Publication Title: 
Bulletin of the World Health Organization

The development of resistance to drugs poses one of the greatest threats to malaria control. In Africa, the efficacy of readily affordable antimalarial drugs is declining rapidly, while highly efficacious drugs tend to be too expensive. Cost-effective strategies are needed to extend the useful life spans of antimalarial drugs. Observations in South-East Asia on combination therapy with artemisinin derivatives and mefloquine indicate that the development of resistance to both components is slowed down.

Author(s): 
Bloland, P. B.
Ettling, M.
Meek, S.
Publication Title: 
Tropical medicine & international health: TM & IH

OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of counterfeit antimalarial drugs in Southeast (SE) Asia. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Pharmacies and shops selling antimalarial drugs in Myanmar (Burma), Lao PDR, Vietnam, Cambodia and Thailand. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Proportion of artemisinin derivatives or mefloquine containing drugs of substandard quality. RESULTS: Of the 188 tablet packs purchased which were labelled as 'artesunate' 53% did not contain any artesunate.

Author(s): 
Dondorp, A. M.
Newton, P. N.
Mayxay, M.
Van Damme, W.
Smithuis, F. M.
Yeung, S.
Petit, A.
Lynam, A. J.
Johnson, A.
Hien, T. T.
McGready, R.
Farrar, J. J.
Looareesuwan, S.
Day, N. P. J.
Green, M. D.
White, N. J.
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

Medicine sellers are widely used for fever and malaria treatment in sub-Saharan Africa, but concerns surround the appropriateness of drugs and information provided. Because there is increasing interest in improving their services, we reviewed the literature on their characteristics and interventions to improve their malaria-related practices. Sixteen interventions were identified, involving a mixture of training/capacity building, demand generation, quality assurance, and creating an enabling environment.

Author(s): 
Goodman, Catherine
Brieger, William
Unwin, Alasdair
Mills, Anne
Meek, Sylvia
Greer, George
Publication Title: 
Tropical medicine & international health: TM & IH

OBJECTIVE: To assess the quality of healthcare workers' performance with regard to malaria diagnosis and treatment and to assess patients' self-medication with chloroquine (CQ) before and after presentation at a health centre. METHODS: In the rainy season 2004, in five rural dispensaries in Burkina Faso, we observed 1101 general outpatient consultations and re-examined all these patients. CQ whole blood concentrations of confirmed malaria cases were measured before and after treatment.

Author(s): 
Pfeiffer, K.
Some, F.
Müller, O.
Sie, A.
Kouyaté, B.
Haefeli, W. E.
Zoungrana, A.
Gustafsson, L. L.
Tomson, G.
Sauerborn, R.
Publication Title: 
Emerging Infectious Diseases

Plasmodium falciparum malaria developed in an African-born traveler who returned to Canada after visiting Nigeria. While there, she took artesunate prophylactically. Isolates had an elevated 50% inhibitory concentration to artemisinin, artesunate, and artemether, compared with that of other African isolates. Inappropriate use of artemisinin derivatives can reduce P. falciparum susceptibility.

Author(s): 
Shahinas, Dea
Lau, Rachel
Khairnar, Krishna
Hancock, David
Pillai, Dylan R.
Publication Title: 
BMC public health

BACKGROUND: Medicines are kept in households Worldwide for first aid, treatment of chronic or acute disease conditions. This promotes inappropriate use of medicines and hence the associated risks. The study explored the factors which predict availability and utilization of medicines in households of Northern Uganda. METHOD: A cross sectional survey of 892 households was performed from November-to-December 2012. Five data collectors administered the questionnaires, respondents were requested to bring out any medicines present in their households.

Author(s): 
Ocan, Moses
Bbosa, Godfrey S.
Waako, Paul
Ogwal-Okeng, Jasper
Obua, Celestino
Publication Title: 
Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
Author(s): 
Chappel, J. N.
Publication Title: 
Lancet
Author(s): 
Haak, H.
Hardon, A. P.

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