Senegal

Publication Title: 
Journal of Evolutionary Biology

Cooperative behaviour and generosity towards nonkin represent costly and risky behaviour that could be used as a signal of mate quality. Therefore, cooperative traits could serve as criteria in mate choice, leading to assortative mating for those traits. There is evidence of similarity in couples for altruistic traits. However, the literature is based on self-reports and does not provide conclusive proof of either a convergence across time or mating preferences.

Author(s): 
Tognetti, A.
Berticat, C.
Raymond, M.
Faurie, C.
Publication Title: 
Transfusion

BACKGROUND: The objectives of this analysis were 1) to compare the sociodemographic characteristics of donors and nondonors, 2) to describe the channels through which Dakar's population is made aware of blood donation, and 3) to analyze the motivations and barriers to blood donation expressed by donors and nondonors. STUDY DESIGN AND METHOD: A survey of 600 individuals age 20 and older representative of Dakar's population was conducted in 2009 to analyze awareness of blood donation, donor characteristics, and barriers and motivations to blood donation.

Author(s): 
Duboz, Priscilla
Macia, Enguerran
CunÈo, Bernard
Publication Title: 
Journal of Evolutionary Biology

Cooperative behaviour and generosity towards nonkin represent costly and risky behaviour that could be used as a signal of mate quality. Therefore, cooperative traits could serve as criteria in mate choice, leading to assortative mating for those traits. There is evidence of similarity in couples for altruistic traits. However, the literature is based on self-reports and does not provide conclusive proof of either a convergence across time or mating preferences.

Author(s): 
Tognetti, A.
Berticat, C.
Raymond, M.
Faurie, C.
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

The in vitro activity of artemether against 56 African isolates of Plasmodium falciparum from Senegal was evaluated using an isotope-based drug susceptibility semi-microtest. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values for artemether were in a narrow range from 0.8 to 15.2 nM (mean IC50 = 3.43 nM) and the 95% confidence interval (CI) was 2.50-4.36 nM. Artemether was equally effective on chloroquine-sensitive and chloroquine-resistant isolates (mean IC50 = 346 nM, 95% CI = 2.08-4.84 nM versus mean IC50 = 2.80 nM, 95% CI = 2.00-3.60 nM).

Author(s): 
Pradines, B.
Rogier, C.
Fusai, T.
Tall, A.
Trape, J. F.
Doury, J. C.
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

The in vitro activities of doxycycline, chloroquine, quinine, amodiaquine, artemether, pyrimethamine, and cycloguanil were evaluated against Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Senegal (Dielmo and Ndiop), using an isotopic, micro, drug susceptibility test. The 71-50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values for doxycycline ranged from 0.7 to 108.0 microM and the geometric mean IC50 for the 71 isolates was 11.3 microM (95% confidence interval = 9.5-13.4 microM).

Author(s): 
Pradines, B.
Spiegel, A.
Rogier, C.
Tall, A.
Mosnier, J.
Fusai, T.
Trape, J. F.
Parzy, D.
Publication Title: 
Tropical medicine & international health: TM & IH

A group of 110 individuals with Schistosoma mansoni infection was investigated. Patients were allocated to one of three treatment groups and given artesunate or praziquantel alone or both in combination. Combined artesunate-praziquantel significantly increased the number of individuals cured at 5 weeks post-treatment, but at 12 weeks was only better than artesunate alone and at 24 weeks there was no statistically significant difference between the three groups. Egg count reduction rate was similar to the rate obtained with praziquantel used alone.

Author(s): 
De Clercq, D.
Vercruysse, J.
Verlé, P.
Kongs, A.
Diop, M.
Publication Title: 
Tropical medicine & international health: TM & IH

Senegal is changing policy for case management of uncomplicated falciparum malaria, which hitherto is diagnosed clinically and treated with chloroquine or intramuscular quinine. The WHO recommends artemisinin-based combinations for treating falciparum malaria, preferably based on a parasitological diagnosis. There are no economic projections if such a policy were introduced in Senegal. We have conducted a preliminary economic assessment of such a policy change. The study took place in the chloroquine-resistant district of Oussouye in south-western Senegal.

Author(s): 
Agnamey, P.
Brasseur, P.
Cisse, M.
Gaye, O.
Dumoulin, J.
Rigal, J.
Taylor, W. R. J.
Olliaro, P.
Publication Title: 
Malaria Journal

BACKGROUND: In view of the high level of chloroquine resistance in many countries, WHO has recommended the use of combination therapy with artemisinin derivatives in the treatment of uncomplicated malaria due to Plasmodium falciparum. Four antimalarial drug combinations, artesunate plus amodiaquine (Arsucam), artesunate plus mefloquine (Artequin), artemether plus lumefantrine (Coartem; four doses and six doses), and amodiaquine plus sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine, were studied in five health districts in Senegal.

Author(s): 
Faye, Babacar
Ndiaye, Jean-Louis
Ndiaye, Daouda
Dieng, Yémou
Faye, Oumar
Gaye, Oumar
Publication Title: 
Malaria Journal

BACKGROUND: Having reliable forecasts is critical now for producers, malaria-endemic countries and agencies in order to adapt production and procurement of the artemisinin-based combination treatments (ACTs), the new first-line treatments of malaria. There is no ideal method to quantify drug requirements for malaria. Morbidity data give uncertain estimations. This study uses drug consumption to provide elements to help estimate quantities and financial requirements of ACTs.

Author(s): 
Kindermans, Jean-Marie
Vandenbergh, Daniel
Vreeke, Ed
Olliaro, Piero
D'Altilia, Jean-Pierre
Publication Title: 
Malaria Journal

BACKGROUND: There are no data on the long term use of an artemisinin combination treatment in moderate or high transmission areas of Africa. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Artesunate plus amodiaquine (AS+AQ) was used to treat slide-proven Plasmodium falciparum-infected patients of all ages in the Oussouye district, Casamance, Senegal, over a period of six years (2000 to 2005). Efficacy, by Kaplan Meier survival analysis (n = 966), and safety (adverse event rates, n = 752) were determined over 28 days.

Author(s): 
Brasseur, Philippe
Agnamey, Patrice
Gaye, Oumar
Vaillant, Michel
Taylor, Walter R. J.
Olliaro, Piero L.

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