Terminalia, a large genus of Combretaceae, is distributed in Tropical Asia, Africa, and America. Some Terminalia plants are used in folk medicine because they possess powerful medicinal properties. Dried fruits of Terminalia bellirica and Terminalia chebula are used as the main ingredient in Triphala, a famous polyherbal formulation in Ayurvedic medicine and Thai folk medicine, because of their laxative, detoxifying, and rejuvenating effects. To clarify the phylogenetic relationships of medicinal Terminalia species (T. bellirica, T. chebula, and T.
NaCT (sodium-coupled citrate transporter) is an Na(+)-coupled citrate transporter identified recently in mammals that mediates the cellular uptake of citrate. It is expressed predominantly in the liver. NaCT is structurally and functionally related to the product of the Indy (I'm not dead yet) gene in Drosophila, the dysfunction of which leads to lifespan extension. Here, we show that NaCT mediates the utilization of extracellular citrate for fat synthesis in human liver cells, and that the process is stimulated by lithium.
Ticks are obligate hematophagous ectoparasites with a life cycle characterized by a period of starvation; many ticks spend more than 95% of their life off the host. Autophagy, which is the process of bulk cytoplasmic degradation in eukaryotic cells, is induced by starvation and is essential for extension of the lifespan. Therefore, we hypothesized that autophagy also occurs in ticks; however, there has been no report on autophagy-related (ATG) genes in ticks.
Iron is essential for organisms. It is mainly utilized in mitochondria for biosynthesis of iron-sulfur clusters, hemes and other cofactors. Mitoferrin 1 and mitoferrin 2, two homologues proteins belonging to the mitochondrial solute carrier family, are required for iron delivery into mitochondria. Mitoferrin 1 is highly expressed in developing erythrocytes which consume a large amount of iron during hemoglobinization. Mitoferrin 2 is ubiquitously expressed, whose functions are less known.
Aging entails a progressive decline in protein homeostasis, which often leads to age-related diseases. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the site of protein synthesis and maturation for secreted and membrane proteins. Correct folding of ER proteins requires covalent attachment of N-linked glycan oligosaccharides. Here, we report that increased synthesis of N-glycan precursors in the hexosamine pathway improves ER protein homeostasis and extends lifespan in C. elegans.
Insertions or deletions (indels) of amino acids residues have been recognized as an important source of genetic and structural divergence between paralogous Bcl-2 family members. However, these signature sequences have not so far been extensively investigated amongst orthologous Bcl-2 family proteins. Bcl2l10 is an antiapoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family that has evolved rapidly throughout the vertebrate lineage and which shows conserved abundant expression in eggs and oocytes.
Drosophila nasuta nasuta (2n = 8) and D. n. albomicans (2n = 6) are morphologically identical, cross fertile and karyotypically dissimilar pair of chromosomal races belonging to nasuta subgroup of immigrans group of Drosophila. Interracial hybridization between these two races yielded karyotypically stabilized newly evolved Cytoraces with new combinations of chromosomes and DNA content, and are called nasuta-albomicans complex of Drosophila.
Lipocalins are a family of proteins characterized by a conserved eight-stranded ?-barrel structure with a ligand-binding pocket. They perform a wide range of biological functions and this functional multiplicity must relate to the lipid partner involved. Apolipoprotein D (ApoD) and its insect homologues, Lazarillo (Laz) and neural Lazarillo (NLaz), share common ancestral functions like longevity, stress resistance and lipid metabolism regulation, coexisting with very specialized functions, like courtship behavior.
Aging in the world population has increased every year. Superoxide dismutase 2 (Mn-SOD or SOD2) protects against oxidative stress, a main factor influencing cellular longevity. Polymorphisms in SOD2 have been associated with the development of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, as well as psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, depression and bipolar disorder.
The Spt-Ada-Gcn5-acetyltransferase (SAGA) chromatin-modifying complex possesses acetyltransferase and deubiquitinase activities. Within this modular complex, Ataxin-7 anchors the deubiquitinase activity to the larger complex. Here we identified and characterized Drosophila Ataxin-7 and found that reduction of Ataxin-7 protein results in loss of components from the SAGA complex.