Sequence Analysis, DNA

Publication Title: 
Systematic and Applied Microbiology

Five Gram-negative, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming bacteria were isolated from galls on different plant species in Hungary: strain 39/7(T) from Prunus cerasifera Myrobalan, strain 0 from grapevine var. Ezerjó, strain 7/1 from raspberry var. Findus and in Poland, strain C3.4.1 from Colt rootstock (Prunus avium × Prunus pseudocerasus) and strain CP17.2.2 from Prunus avium. Only one of these isolates, strain 0, is able to cause crown gall on different plant species.

Author(s): 
Pu?awska, Joanna
Willems, Anne
De Meyer, Sofie E.
Süle, Sandor
Publication Title: 
Mechanisms of Ageing and Development

Despite evidence of a substantial genetic component, the genetic factors that underlie longevity in humans remain to be identified. Previous genome-wide linkage and association studies have not found strong evidence for the contribution of common variants besides the APOE gene, suggesting the role of rare variants in human longevity. To discover rare variants that might contribute to longevity, we selected 988 candidate genes and performed a pilot study to identify novel non-synonymous variants in 6 Ashkenazi Jewish centenarians older than 105.

Author(s): 
Han, Jeehae
Ryu, Seungjin
Moskowitz, David M.
Rothenberg, Devorah
Leahy, Daniel J.
Atzmon, Gil
Barzilai, Nir
Suh, Yousin
Publication Title: 
Methods in Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.)

Life expectancy has always been associated to several determinants, such as environmental and genetic factors. Studies have related human lifespan as being 25-32 % due to genetic polymorphisms between individuals associated to longevity and aging. Nonetheless, no single gene will convey a phenotype like longevity. Aging is a process that occurs from changes in various levels of the cell, from genes to functions. Longevity is the ability to cope and repair the damage that results from these changes.

Author(s): 
Vargas-AlarcÛn, Gilberto
Flores-DomÌnguez, Carmina
Publication Title: 
Nature Genetics

Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis and is a major cause of pain and disability in the elderly. To search for sequence variants that confer risk of osteoarthritis of the hand, we carried out a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in subjects with severe hand osteoarthritis, using variants identified through the whole-genome sequencing of 2,230 Icelanders.

Author(s): 
Styrkarsdottir, Unnur
Thorleifsson, Gudmar
Helgadottir, Hafdis T.
Bomer, Nils
Metrustry, Sarah
Bierma-Zeinstra, S.
Strijbosch, Annelieke M.
Evangelou, Evangelos
Hart, Deborah
Beekman, Marian
Jonasdottir, Aslaug
Sigurdsson, Asgeir
Eiriksson, Finnur F.
Thorsteinsdottir, Margret
Frigge, Michael L.
Kong, Augustine
Gudjonsson, Sigurjon A.
Magnusson, Olafur T.
Masson, Gisli
TREAT-OA Consortium
arcOGEN Consortium
Hofman, Albert
Arden, Nigel K.
Ingvarsson, Thorvaldur
Lohmander, Stefan
Kloppenburg, Margreet
Rivadeneira, Fernando
Nelissen, Rob G. H. H.
Spector, Tim
Uitterlinden, Andre
Slagboom, P. Eline
Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur
Jonsdottir, Ingileif
Valdes, Ana M.
Meulenbelt, Ingrid
van Meurs, Joyce
Jonsson, Helgi
Stefansson, Kari
Publication Title: 
Environmental Microbiology

Mycoplasms are known as pathogens of economic and medical interest in plants, animals and man. Here, we show a positive correlation between the presence of Mycoplasma-like symbionts in their isopod hosts and survivorship on low-quality food. Most isopods that survived feeding on a cellulose-based low-quality diet for 90 days harboured 'Candidatus Hepatoplasma' in their midgut glands, while those that died within 90 days mostly either harboured no or other bacterial symbionts.

Author(s): 
Fraune, Sebastian
Zimmer, Martin
Publication Title: 
Gastroenterology

Little was known about the development of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract microbiota, until recently, because of difficulties in obtaining sufficient sequence information from enough people or time points. Now, with decreased costs of DNA sequencing and improved bioinformatic tools, we can compare GI tract bacterial communities among individuals, of all ages from infancy to adulthood.

Author(s): 
Dominguez-Bello, Maria Gloria
Blaser, Martin J.
Ley, Ruth E.
Knight, Rob
Publication Title: 
Nucleic Acids Research

We report the identification and cloning of the telomeres of the filamentous fungus,Aspergillus nidulans. We have identified three classes of cloned chromosomal ends based on the telomere-associated sequences (TASs) and demonstrated that the telomeric repeat sequence is TTAGGG, identical to that found in vertebrates, including humans, and some lower eukaryotes. One category of telomere clones was found to contain internal, variant TAAGGG repeats. The A.nidulans telomeric tract length is strikingly short (4-22 repeats).

Author(s): 
Bhattacharyya, A.
Blackburn, E. H.
Publication Title: 
Genes & Development

The ciliated protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila contains two nuclei that differ dramatically in function, chromosome size and number, chromatin structure, and mode of division. It is possible that the telomeres of the two nuclei have different functions. Although macronuclear telomeric DNA has been well characterized and consists of tandem G4T2/C4A2 repeats that are synthesized by the enzyme telomerase, micronuclear telomeres have not been isolated previously.

Author(s): 
Kirk, K. E.
Blackburn, E. H.
Publication Title: 
Current Genetics

Conservation of telomeric DNA repeat sequences has been found across evolutionarily diverse eukaryotes. Here we report on a marked telomeric sequence diversity within the budding yeast genus Saccharomyces. Cloning and sequencing of telomeric repeat units from S. castellii, S. dairensis, S. exiguus and S. kluyveri showed a length variation between 8 and 26 bp, as well as a distinct variation in the degree of homogeneity, among the species. In S. castellii and S. dairensis, TCTGGGTG constituted a majority of the telomeric repeat units.

Author(s): 
Cohn, M.
McEachern, M. J.
Blackburn, E. H.
Publication Title: 
Genes & Development

The ciliated protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila contains two nuclei that differ dramatically in function, chromosome size and number, chromatin structure, and mode of division. It is possible that the telomeres of the two nuclei have different functions. Although macronuclear telomeric DNA has been well characterized and consists of tandem G4T2/C4A2 repeats that are synthesized by the enzyme telomerase, micronuclear telomeres have not been isolated previously.

Author(s): 
Kirk, K. E.
Blackburn, E. H.

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