Sandalwood oil has been found in numerous therapeutic applications in traditional medicines such as Chinese traditional medicine and Ayurveda. However, there are no comparative accounts available in the literature that focused on in vitro and in vivo tree sample-derived extracts. Combined dichloromethane and methanol extracts were obtained from in vitro samples, that is, callus, somatic embryo and seedlings, and in vivo from leaves of non-oil-yielding young and oil-yielding matured trees.
A consistent supply of healthy tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois) (Hemiptera: Miridae), is necessary for the development of novel management strategies targeting this pest. After being in culture for several years, a substantial portion of a tarnished plant bug colony was found to be infected with a Nosema (Microsporidia) species. Studies were subsequently undertaken to evaluate the impact of Nosema infection on tarnished plant bug productivity and to test the efficacy of fumagillin to treat this infection.
The known sesquiterpene valeranone (= Yatamanson) was isolated from the subterranian parts of Nardostachys yatamansi (DC). It was pharmacologically investigated in animal experiments of sedative, tranquilizing and antihypertensive properties. In some experiments, typical for tranquilizers, certain activities could be demonstrated such as the prolongation of barbiturate hypnosis, the impairment of rotarod performance, an anticonvulsive activity on electric shock and potentiation of the body-temperature lowering activity of reserpine.
Research Communications in Chemical Pathology and Pharmacology
Within one day after a single IP injection of cedar sesquiterpenes into mice, pentobarbital sleeptime was reduced by 40%. The estimated ED50 is 50 mg terpenes/kg body weight. The mice recovered from this terpene-induced reduction in the strength of hypnosis within 6 days after the terpene injection. The potency of the terpenes, the rapidity of their action, and the duration of their effectiveness in modulating a drug response suggest their usefulness as a pharmacological tool.
Azuletil sodium (AZE, 100 mg/kg, p.o.) did not affect the general behaviors, spontaneous motor activity, pentobarbital-induced hypnosis and body temperature. Furthermore, it did not elicit anticonvulsant and muscle relaxant actions. However, AZE (300 mg/kg, p.o.) elicited a stiff gate and slightly inhibited the spontaneous motor activity and electroshock-induced convulsions. It had no influence on spontaneous EEG activities, even at 30 mg/kg, i.v. AZE inhibited acetic acid-induced writhing moderately at doses above 100 mg/kg.
Eleven Thai isolates and one West African isolate of Plasmodium falciparum were tested for their susceptibility to the Chinese antimalarial drugs artemisinine (qinghaosu) and artemether. The isolates were cultivated by the Trager-Jensen candle-jar technique and exposed to the action of the drugs for 36-48 hours. Artemisinine inhibited growth of most isolates at 10(-7)-10(-8) mol/litre and artemether at 10(-8) mol/litre (with an initial parasitaemia of 0.5-1.0%).
Plasmodium falciparum infecting hemoglobin (Hb) H and/or Hb Constant Spring erythrocytes in vitro was relatively more resistant than that infecting normal erythrocytes to artesunate and chloroquine, while the sensitivity to pyrimethamine was unchanged. The 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50) for artesunate in HbH (alpha-thal 1/alpha-thal 2), HbH (alpha-thal 1/Hb Constant Spring), and homozygous Hb Constant Spring erythrocytes were 4.5 +/- 2.8, 8.5 +/- 3.2, and 2.6 +/- 1.6 nM compared with 0.82 +/- 0.35 nM in normal erythrocytes (P less than 0.002 for all three cases).
Young female mice were fed torula-yeast-based diets deficient in vitamin E or selenium or supplemented with cod-liver oil to determine the effect of host antioxidant status on the therapeutic efficacy of the Chinese traditional antimalarial drug qinghaosu (QHS), a sesquiterpene endoperoxide. Vitamin E deficiency enhanced the antimalarial action of QHS against Plasmodium yoelii, both in terms of decreased parasitemia and improved survival but Se deficiency did not.
To determine whether artemether, a derivative of the antimalarial agent qinghaosu, is therapeutically active against Schistosoma mansoni, we determined the in vitro, in vivo, and histopathologic effects of the drug on S. mansoni worms. In vitro, toxic effects of artemether on S. mansoni were not seen at concentrations of less than 100 micrograms/ml. However, in vivo, 30 and 50% reductions in the lengths of male and female worms, respectively, were observed 14 days after treatment. By 56 days worm dimensions had returned to control values.
Zhongguo Yao Li Xue Bao = Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
TLC scanning technique was found to have good specificity for studying the absorption and distribution of artemether in rats. Plasma or tissue homogenates 0.2-1.0 ml were placed in glass extraction tubes and water was added to make 1.0 ml. Each sample was extracted 3 times with 4 ml mixed organic solvent (n-pentane: dichloromethane = 1:1, vol:vol). The organic layers of 3 extractions were combined and evaporated. The residue was dissolved in 100-300 microliters of ethylacetate and spotted on TLC plates.