Set (Psychology)

Publication Title: 
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology

In this study, we examine the role of attributions in the context of dating relationships. A large sample completed a questionnaire comprising structured ratings and a free-response relationship description. As expected, cognitive or attributional activity was more frequent within relationships when they were in the early stages, when important choice points or changes were occurring, and when the relationships were perceived as unstable.

Author(s): 
Fletcher, G. J.
Fincham, F. D.
Cramer, L.
Heron, N.
Publication Title: 
Psychological Science

Gaze direction is a vital communicative channel through which people transmit information to each other. By signaling the locus of social attention, gaze cues convey information about the relative importance of objects, including other people, in the environment. For the most part, this information is communicated via patterns of gaze direction, with gaze shifts signaling changes in the objects of attention. Noting the relevance of gaze cues in social cognition, we speculated that gaze shifts may modulate people's evaluations of others.

Author(s): 
Mason, Malia F.
Tatkow, Elizabeth P.
Macrae, C. Neil
Publication Title: 
The British Journal of Social Psychology

The social scientific literature seems increasingly to accept that defining partnership or 'romantic' love in a singular and timeless fashion might not be a realisable task (Fehr, 1988). One clearly discernible response to this situation takes the form of a turn towards studying the subjective experience of partnership love. The work of Marston, Hecht, Manke, McDaniel, and Reeder (1998) and Sternberg (1995, 1996, 1998) are highlighted as theoretical and methodological exemplars in this regard.

Author(s): 
Watts, Simon
Stenner, Paul
Publication Title: 
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology

The authors propose specific temporal profiles that reflect certainty versus doubt about where a partner stands with respect to a dating relationship over time. Two multiwave longitudinal studies focused on within-participant changes in perceived partner commitment. Results from multilevel modeling indicate that individuals whose perceptions of partner commitment fluctuate over time were more likely to be in a relationship that eventually ended than were individuals whose perceptions remained relatively steady.

Author(s): 
Arriaga, Ximena B.
Reed, Jason T.
Goodfriend, Wind
Agnew, Christopher R.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Psychosomatic Research

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to test a motivational interpretation of placebo responding using two different types of placebo therapy, one using flower essences and the other a nonspecific psychological therapy. The motivational concordance interpretation is that therapeutic rituals that are consistent with self-defining or self-actualizing goals have a nonspecific therapeutic benefit independently of expectancy.

Author(s): 
Hyland, Michael E.
Whalley, Ben
Geraghty, Adam W. A.
Publication Title: 
Child Development

This study evaluated whether age differences in children's generosity are due to increasing altruistic motivation or increasing susceptibility to experimenter influence strategies. 282 first, third, and fifth graders voted on how to spend a gift of money under 1 of 5 instructional sets--3 levels of experimenter influence, peer influence, or no influence, or no influence.

Author(s): 
Zarbatany, L.
Hartmann, D. P.
Gelfand, D. M.
Publication Title: 
Child Development

This study evaluated whether age differences in children's generosity are due to increasing altruistic motivation or increasing susceptibility to experimenter influence strategies. 282 first, third, and fifth graders voted on how to spend a gift of money under 1 of 5 instructional sets--3 levels of experimenter influence, peer influence, or no influence, or no influence.

Author(s): 
Zarbatany, L.
Hartmann, D. P.
Gelfand, D. M.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology

A substantial body of evidence collected by Batson and his associates has advanced the idea that pure (i.e., selfless) altruism occurs under conditions of empathy for a needy other. An egoistic alternative account of this evidence was proposed and tested in our work. We hypothesized that an observer's heightened empathy for a sufferer brings with it increased personal sadness in the observer and that it is the egoistic desire to relieve the sadness, rather than the selfless desire to relieve the sufferer, that motivates helping.

Author(s): 
Cialdini, R. B.
Schaller, M.
Houlihan, D.
Arps, K.
Fultz, J.
Beaman, A. L.
Publication Title: 
Zeitschrift Fur Experimentelle Psychologie: Organ Der Deutschen Gesellschaft Fur Psychologie

An experimental study investigated the influence of priming on helping behavior. A scrambled sentence test was used to prime groups with the concepts of altruism or egoism. In a third group a neutral concept was activated. The results indicated that there is no difference in helping behavior between the altruism and the neutral group. However, in the egoism priming condition participants showed higher latencies and helped less often than participants in both other conditions.

Author(s): 
Walther, E.
M¸ller, D.
Schott, O.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Experimental Psychology
Author(s): 
White, B. J.
Alter, R. D.
Snow, M. E.
Thorne, D. E.

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