OBJECTIVE: To assess body shape ideals across gender, sexual orientation, race, socio-economic status, and age, METHOD: An analysis of personal advertisements was conducted across seven different publications which targeted the groups of interest. RESULTS: Women advertised body weight much less often than men, and lesbians reported body shape descriptors significantly less often than heterosexual women. Gay men and African-American men described their body shape significantly more often than did other groups.
There are well-established sex differences in the prevalence of certain mental disorders. Work in animal models has provided us with an emerging understanding of the role that epigenetic factors play in establishing sex differences in the brain during development. Similarly, work in animal models, and a more limited but growing literature based on human studies, has demonstrated that DNA methylation (DNAm) changes occur in response to environmental stress, with some of these occurring in a sex-specific manner.
When a couple become erotically pair-bonded, whether for a night or a lifetime, they are by definition committed to each other erotically. That is the minimum. The degree varies. The commitment may be limited to the proceptive phase of solicitation or courtship, or it may include the acceptive phase of coitus, or it may extend to the conceptive phase of parenthood. People "fall in love with their fantasy" and project onto the partner a range of future commitments.
The effort is made to delineate some of the key issues involved in the interaction of love, sex, and commitment. Coupling is viewed from an ethological perspective that suggests that, in addition to the developmental contribution of the parent-child experience, peer-peer relating is a major determinant of adult hetrosexual relatedness. Couples are next considered as responding to social and economic forces that influence powerfully what types and duration of relationships have survival value.
This paper examines the long-term issues of sexual dysfunction in terms of normal psychosexual development. Human sexual development and ego growth take simultaneous origin within the symbiotic relationship of the child and its first nurturant caretaker, usually the mother. Infantile sexuality, the pleasure of the total body, is equivalent to love and dependent upon sameness and continuity, tending toward fusion. Adult sexuality depends for its emotional impetus upon separateness and difference between lovers.
Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet is used to illustrate several connected theses regarding the relation of the couple to its surrounding social group: these include a couple's oedipal rebellion, the unconscious longing for and hatred of the idealized couple by the large group, the denial of aggression within the couple and its projection onto the group, the impotence of rationality and the conventionalization of sexuality in the large group, and the pervading dynamics of aggression in group formation.
The psychoanalytic literature on shame is critically reviewed. A vagueness and incompleteness in formulations is noted which appears to be related to an adherence to the structural and topographical models. Shame is shown to have a clearly defined place in object-relations theory, in particular within the theory of narcissism as developed elsewhere by the author. It is the signal, affective and cognitive, that a move from 'self-narcissism' to 'object-narcissism' is about to occur.
The Journal of the American Academy of Psychoanalysis
Although the erotic transference is believed to be universal, it is variable in its expression. Drawing on the distinction between transference resistance and resistance to the awareness of the transference, I have proposed that, in general, the erotic transference utilized as resistance is more common among women, while resistance to the awareness of the erotic transference is more common among male patients. Erotic transference as resistance poses different analytic problems from those posed by resistance to its awareness.