Annett, Yeo et al. and Klar have each proposed theories that relate the genetics of cerebral lateralization to predisposition to psychosis. These theories are considered in relation to the central paradox that psychosis is associated with a substantial biological disadvantage. Annett's heterozygote advantage hypothesis critically identified lateralization as a major determinant of ability, but it appears that what is inherited is degrees (as suggested by Yeo et al.) rather than (or as well as) direction of lateralization.
The goal of the present study was to investigate parent-of-origin effects in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Parent-of-origin effects in ADHD may be due to differences in the relative quantity of risk factors transmitted by each parent. Alternatively, parent-of-origin effects may be produced by qualitative differences in the risks transmitted, such as those carried on the sex chromosomes or regulated by genomic imprinting.
Behaviors are adaptations to the physical, biotic, and social environments. Great diversity exists among vertebrates in reproductive behaviors and the neuroendocrine mechanisms underlying these behaviors. Study of this diversity illuminates species, population, and sex differences in hormone-brain-behavior relations. It also can provide insights into how and why certain neuroendocrine mechanisms evolved.
The "four core genotypes" (FCG) model comprises mice in which sex chromosome complement (XX vs. XY) is unrelated to the animal's gonadal sex. The four genotypes are XX gonadal males or females, and XY gonadal males or females. The model allows one to measure (1) the differences in phenotypes caused by sex chromosome complement (XX vs. XY), (2) the differential effects of ovarian and testicular secretions, and (3) the interactive effects of (1) and (2).
XX and XY cells have a different number of X and Y genes. These differences in their genomes cause sex differences in the functions of cells, both in the gonads and in non-gonadal tissues. This review discusses mouse models that have shed light on these direct genetic effects of sex chromosomes that cause sex differences in physiology. Because many sex differences in tissues are caused by different effects of male and female gonadal hormones, it is important to attempt to discriminate between direct genetic and hormonal effects.