In the Georgia Centenarian Study (Poon et al., Exceptional Longevity, 2006), centenarian cases and young controls are classified according to three categories (age, ethnic origin, and single nucleotide polymorphisms [SNPs] of candidate longevity genes), where each factor has two possible levels. Here we provide methodologies to determine the minimum sample size needed to detect dependence in 2 x 2 x 2 tables based on Fisher's exact test evaluated exactly or by Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC), assuming only the case total L and the control total N are known.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Fruits and vegetables are known for their beneficial effects on chronic diseases. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of a diet rich in fruits and vegetables on total stroke mortality and its 2 main subtypes in men and women separately. METHODS: A prospective cohort study of 40 349 Japanese men and women was initiated in 1980-1981 and followed until 1998. Fruit and vegetable intake was assessed at baseline on the basis of the response to a food frequency questionnaire.
PURPOSE: Prevalence estimates of healthy behaviors and preventive care among older adults have not received sufficient attention, despite important health benefits such as longevity and better quality of life. Moreover, little is known about general population prevalences of older adults' efforts to change behavior, motivations to improve health behaviors, and perceived barriers to change.
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether adherence to the modified Mediterranean diet, in which unsaturates were substituted for monounsaturates, is associated with longer life expectancy among elderly Europeans. DESIGN: Multicentre, prospective cohort study. SETTING: Nine European countries (Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom). PARTICIPANTS: 74,607 men and women, aged 60 or more, without coronary heart disease, stroke, or cancer at enrolment and with complete information about dietary intake and potentially confounding variables.
Centenarians represent an intriguing model for ageing studies, since they demonstrate extreme longevity by definition, and at the same time a proportion of them have aged successfully. Here, we present data from the first nationwide study on Greek centenarians concerning their functional health status and life-style characteristics. We have identified 489 individuals (77% women) born in 1900 or before who were still alive between the years 2000 and 2002.
Overall dietary patterns have been associated with health and longevity. We used principal component (PC) and cluster analyses to identify the prevailing dietary patterns of 99 744 participants, aged 60 years or older, living in nine European countries and participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Elderly cohort) and to examine their socio-demographic and lifestyle correlates.
BACKGROUND: The Mediterranean diet has been suggested to play a beneficial role for health and longevity. However, to our knowledge, no prospective US study has investigated the Mediterranean dietary pattern in relation to mortality. METHODS: Study participants included 214,284 men and 166,012 women in the National Institutes of Health (NIH)-AARP (formerly known as the American Association of Retired Persons) Diet and Health Study. During follow-up for all-cause mortality (1995-2005), 27,799 deaths were documented.
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Adequate dietary intake of antioxidants is vital for the promotion of health, well being and longevity of the elderly. This study assessed the prevalence of vitamin A (retinol) and vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) deficiency in a population of low-income South African elderly. METHODS: Serum vitamin A and vitamin E concentrations were determined in 235 persons aged 60-93 years in Sharpeville, South Africa. Dietary assessment was done using 24-h recall. Weight and height were measured to determine body mass index.
In half a century, the number of nonagenarians and/or centenarians has dramatically increased, particularly due to the increase in life expectancy at old age. However, successful aging is more important than longevity. All along their life, people can act to preserve their health, their physical and mental abilities as well as their autonomy. This requires a healthy diet, having physical and intellectual appropriate activities and a right use of medical care. Finally, maintaining a social role and a raison d'Ítre in old age are also major factors in successful aging.
This study shows that the fruit fly, Ceratitis rosa (Karsch), has a significantly longer life span than the medfly, C. capitata (Wiedemann); the species used as a model organism for the demographics of insect aging. This was somewhat surprising given that both have similar distributions and overlapping niches. We postulate that the greater longevity of C. rosa is related to the fact that it can occupy colder habitats where the availability of suitable host plants may be very unpredictable in both time and space.