When organisms as diverse as yeast and rodents are subjected to a restricted diet, they live longer. The good news is, according to Vaupel, Carey, and Christensen in their Perspective, that switching to a restricted diet at any age can yield the benefit of increased longevity--at least in flies (Mair et al.).
Apolipoprotein D (ApoD), a member of the Lipocalin family, is the gene most up-regulated with age in the mammalian brain. Its expression strongly correlates with aging-associated neurodegenerative and metabolic diseases. Two homologues of ApoD expressed in the Drosophila brain, Glial Lazarillo (GLaz) and Neural Lazarillo (NLaz), are known to alter longevity in male flies. However, sex differences in the aging process have not been explored so far for these genes.
A tenet of life history evolution is that allocation of limited resources results in trade-offs, such as that between reproduction and lifespan. Reproduction and lifespan are also influenced proximately by differences in the availability of specific nutrients. What is unknown is how the evolution of the ability to use a nutritionally novel diet is reflected in this fundamental trade-off. Does the evolution of the ability to use a nutritionally novel food maintain the trade-off in reproduction and longevity, or do the proximate effects of nutrition alter the adapted trade-off?
Pollinator behaviour directly affects patterns of pollen movement and outcrossing rates in plants. In orchids pollinated by sexual deception of insects, patterns of pollen movement are primarily determined by the mate-searching behaviour of the deceived males. Here, using a capture-mark-recapture study (CMR) and dietary analysis, we compare mate-searching behaviour in relation to local abundance of two pollinator species and explore the implications for pollen movement in sexually deceptive Drakaea (Orchidaceae). Drakaea are pollinated solely by the sexual deception of male thynnine wasps.
Adult dietary restriction (DR) extends lifespan, but the mechanisms that underlie this effect are not well understood. Many DR studies have demonstrated that lifespan extension tends to be accompanied by a reduction in female fecundity - a correlation widely interpreted as evidence that DR triggers an adaptive re - allocation of resources from reproduction to somatic maintenance. Yet, recent evidence suggests that survival and fecundity need not always trade off under DR, calling the re-allocation hypothesis into question.
BACKGROUND: In various species mating exerts direct and indirect effects on female demographic traits ranging from life span shortening to behavioural shifts. A wealth of data regarding effects of nutrition on longevity and reproduction output also exists. Nonetheless, little is known regarding the interaction between the age of mating and nutrition on female fitness. METHODOLOGY: We studied, the effects of protein deprivation and age of mating on female fitness traits, using a wild population of the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly).
Recent studies in fruit flies have imposed dietary restriction (DR) by diluting yeast and have reported increased lifespan as the yeast-to-sugar ratio decreased. In this study, the effects of DR on the lifespan of Bactrocera dorsalis were investigated using constant-feeding diets with different yeast:sugar ratios and an intermittent-feeding diet in which flies ate every sixth day. Antioxidant enzyme activities and the malondialdehyde concentration were also measured in virgin females under constant-feeding DR protocols to investigate their relationships with lifespan.
Four experiments explored the effects of mating motivation on creativity. Even without other incentives to be creative, romantic motives enhanced creativity on subjective and objective measures. For men, any cue designed to activate a short-term or a long-term mating goal increased creative displays; however, women displayed more creativity only when primed to attract a high-quality long-term mate. These creative boosts were unrelated to increased effort on creative tasks or to changes in mood or arousal.
In animals of the same species, the reflexes, having evolved similarly, in a few milliseconds, automatically activate the corresponding reflex arch and without the intervention of the animal generate the adequate response: medullary, mesencephalic or trans-hemispheric. These neurophysiological functions have allowed the animals to be free from predators and increasy their longevity and, as a consequence, the appearance of numerous species during millions of years.
Multiple mating by females can result in fitness costs for both sexes, and to reduce these costs each sex may attempt to manipulate the other. Substantial insights into the nature of this sexual antagonism have recently come from studies of two different fly species.