Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The prevention and control of HCV infection is complex and challenging in terms of describing risk factors and modes of transmission. This meta-analysis was conducted to summarize the best available data on HCV risk factors worldwide and in Egypt. METHODS: Through exhaustive literature searches (1989-2013) of HCV risk factors, 357 original eligible articles were included in this study.
In most primate groups emigration of the maturing young of one or the other sex tends to serve as an incest avoidance mechanism. Among most primate species it is the males who change groups. This supports the theory that, in terms of reproductive success, males should compete for mates and females should compete for resources. In hominoids the combination of increased longevity and greater female discrimination in mate selection seems responsible for female emigration. This may relate to the high frequency of patrilocality and male control of resources among human groups.
Prenatal exposure to maternal stress can have lifelong implications for psychological function, such as behavioral problems and even the development of mental illness. Previous research suggests that this is due to transgenerational epigenetic programming of genes operating in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, such as the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). However, it is not known whether intrauterine exposure to maternal stress affects the epigenetic state of these genes beyond infancy.
CONTEXT: Since 1990, HIV infection in Brazil has spread among the heterosexual population, particularly in the north. Containment of the epidemic can be informed by a better understanding of men's sexual risk behavior. METHODS: Logistic, Poisson and multilevel logit models were applied to data on married and cohabiting men who had participated in the 1996 Brazilian Demographic and Health Survey. RESULTS: Twelve percent of married or cohabiting men reported having had at least one extramarital partner in the previous 12 months; half of these had had two or more.
Received wisdom suggests that boundaries are, or should be, important in intimate relationships. In this essay, we focus primarily upon the beliefs and phenomenology relating to a variety of boundaries, and provide a discussion of some conceptual issues, in order to understand better the development, facilitation, and maintenance of, as well as restraints upon, intimacy. Although we attend mainly to dyadic relationships, we believe that our observations and suggestions have application to larger groups.
Problems in defining, reporting, and sampling the sexual experience of older women have limited the available information. It should be remembered, however, that an aging population is a sign of societal success, not failure. To date, there has not been a better educated, healthier, wealthier, better-housed, or more self-sufficient generation of older women that at present. Working in the area of sexuality can help improve an important issue in the quality of life for the older woman.
This paper explores changes in the recent psychoanalytic theory regarding the preconditions and structural characteristics of sexual love. In briefly reviewing Freud's contributions and subsequent developments regarding infantile sexuality and the perversions, the oedipal constellation, superego development and mass psychology, a common frame is provided for the description of the love life of the sexual couple.
Love means the ability to combine idealization and erotic fulfillment and to establish a profound object relation. The author examines the clinical features of erotic desire, its ecstatic and aggressive aspects and the way they are bound up with transcending the limits of the self, its genetic roots and the unconscious object relations underlying the sexual couple. In Kernberg's view, embarking on the adventure of a love relationship involves both identifying with and overcoming the oedipal parent-couple at one and the same time.
This paper aims to stimulate awareness of the relationship between adult heterosexual love and sexual health. Although rarely discussed in professional circles, adult love is a powerful ideal that strongly influences both individual and relationship psychology. A gap between one's personal ideal of love and the actual experience of it inevitably appears within a long-term relationship. The feelings and behavior that stems from the gap become a crucial management issue for each individual in a relationship.
In this, the second decade of the AIDS epidemic, most gay men have adequate knowledge of the most efficient transmission routes. Men know the techniques recommended to significantly reduce the likelihood of transmission. Men do not want to be infected. Yet some continue to take chances for sexual transmission of HIV. Why? This paper will explore the reasons given by men in a small city for engaging (or not) in specific sexual practices.