International Journal of Hyperthermia: The Official Journal of European Society for Hyperthermic Oncology, North American Hyperthermia Group
PURPOSE: Radiofrequency (RF) tumor ablation has become an accepted treatment modality for tumors not amenable to surgery. Skin burns due to ground pad heating may become a limiting factor for further increase in ablation zone dimensions and generator power. We investigated a method were groups of ground pads are sequentially activated to reduce skin heating. METHODS: We compared conventional operation (i.e. simultaneous connection of all pads) to sequentially switched activation of the pads where different pad combinations are active for periods of approximately 0.3 - 8 s.
The effects of hypnosis, acupuncture and analgesic drugs on the subjective experience of pain and on objective neurophysiological parameters were investigated. Pain was produced by brief electric stimuli on the wrist. Pain challengers were: hypnosis (induced by two different video tapes), acupuncture (at specific and unspecific loci, with and without electrical stimulation of the needles), morphine and ketamine. Evaluation of clinical parameters included the subjective experience of pain intensity, blood pressure, puls, temperature, psychosomatic symptoms and side effects.
A quantitative investigation of the EEG during hypnosis was made by analyzing the analogue power frequency spectrum of one group of subjects in the awake and hypnotized conditions, and another group (random sample) in the awake condition. Individuals of the first group were thoroughly experienced in self-hypnosis and highly hypnotizable, whereas those of the second group had never been hypnotized and were low in waking suggestibility.
Forehead skin temperature, heart rate and palmar skin resistance were recorded during passive hypnosis and compared with corresponding data obtained during the resting awake condition in a group of highly hypnotizable subjects experienced in self-hypnosis. Similar physiological measures were also monitored during experimental periods when subjects were experiencing suggested environmental conditions of cold and heat in hypnosis as compared with imagining the stress conditions.
The controversy about acupuncture is familiar to us since its recent reintroduction into this country. Much of its philosophical concepts were taken at their face values as the bases for condemnation. Since I last reviewed these antiquated concepts in the light of modern medicine, much has developed. It seems that if the effects of acupuncture were transmitted along the peripheral nerves to the central nervous system, it would be more effective if applied segmentally to the site of noxious stimulation. Disruption of extralamniscal pathways would abolish its analgesic effect.