This paper explores changes in the recent psychoanalytic theory regarding the preconditions and structural characteristics of sexual love. In briefly reviewing Freud's contributions and subsequent developments regarding infantile sexuality and the perversions, the oedipal constellation, superego development and mass psychology, a common frame is provided for the description of the love life of the sexual couple.
Three experiments examined how 2 fundamental social motives--self-protection and mate attraction--influenced conformity. A self-protective goal increased conformity for both men and women. In contrast, the effects of a romantic goal depended on sex, causing women to conform more to others' preferences while engendering nonconformity in men.
Social-value orientations in interdependence situations are expected to be influenced by self-presentational concerns because in contrast to proself orientations (individualism and competition), prosocial orientations (cooperation, altruism, equality, and maximin) tend to make a more positive impression on others. In the present study, the influence of self-presentation on social orientation was inhibited by means of a bogus pipeline procedure.
Three cases of pediatric surgical body modification--limb lengthening, normalization of genitalia, and craniofacial surgery--are considered through the moral language used by those who experience these surgeries. This language has been described as altruistic individualism. Decision making remains individualist, but it also shows considerable concern for others; egoism is complementary with altruism. The altruistic individualist is one of many incompatible identities that are predicted and described by the figure of the cyborg.
The present study explored adolescents' ethical self-images and related behavioral decisions. Data were collected from two groups of adolescent girls (N = 49) using an open-ended survey. One group attended a public high school for gifted students and the other group attended an alternative public high school. The results indicate that goodness is connected with altruism, adherence to external standards, or self-beneficial actions. Alternatively, badness is associated with going against social norms, harming others, or violating inner values.
Although the body of research on African Americans and organ donation continues to grow, the literature still suffers from a lack of reliance on theory to guide research as well as a surfeit of advanced statistical analytical strategies. A more sophisticated approach to understanding the barriers and facilitating factors that African Americans experience in the process of making the decision to become potential organ donors would yield more sound campaign strategies to increase donation.
The Journal of the American Academy of Psychoanalysis and Dynamic Psychiatry
Psychoanalysis does not always take moral greatness as a given, a fact attributed by Horney to Freud's view of psychology as a natural science. The French psychiatrist Henri Baruk, however, attempts to bridge the gap between normative and empirical considerations by proposing a model based on the Biblical concept of tsedek, a Hebrew term for altruism coupled with a strong sense of justice. Those who possessed these qualities, Baruk argued, had a more highly developed sense of Self and Other.
Parochial altruism--a preference for altruistic behavior towards ingroup members and mistrust or hostility towards outgroup members--is a pervasive feature in human society and strongly shapes the enforcement of social norms. Since the uniqueness of human society critically depends on the enforcement of norms, the understanding of the neural circuitry of the impact of parochial altruism on social norm enforcement is key, but unexplored.
People often alter their own preferences when facing conflicting opinions expressed by others. This is known as the social conformity effect and tends to be stronger in response to opinions expressed by in-group relative to out-group members. The hypothalamic neuropeptide oxytocin promotes in-group favoritism, elicits parochial altruism, and stimulates in-group conformity under explicit social pressure.