Jesuit-run Marian Congregations proliferated in 1930s Spain. Drawing on literature produced for their members, this article demonstrates how gendered understandings were fundamental to the congregations' symbolic delineation of an uncontaminated Catholic space. Visions of an incorrupt male elite abound, reinforcing the Jesuits' educational mission among future leaders and opinion-formers. In contrast, the purity of women and children was seen as a sign of society's moral health. Modesty was the quintessential female virtue.
...A commercial surrogate mother is anyone who is paid money to bear a child for other people and terminate her parental rights, so that the others may raise the child as exclusively their own. The growth of commercial surrogacy has raised with new urgency a class of concerns regarding the proper scope of the market. Some critics have objected to commercial surrogacy on the ground that it improperly treats children and women's reproductive capacities as commodities. The prospect of reducing children to consumer durables and women to baby factories surely inspires revulsion.
As organ transplantation is physically possible within a tension between common biological properties and individual immunities, so it is ethically possible within a tension between individual personality in full integrity and the human community of which each member, social by nature, is an organic part. Ethical donation is by consent, explicit or presumed, spontaneously offered or procured by request. Altruism or commercial dealing is now a live issue in organ procurement, whether cadaveric or by live donation, related or unrelated.
An implicit assumption underpins basic models of the evolution of cooperation, mutualism and altruism: The benefits (or pay-offs) of cooperation and defection are defined by the current frequency or distribution of cooperators. In social dilemmas involving durable public goods (group resources that can persist in the environment-ubiquitous from microbes to humans) this assumption is violated. Here, we examine the consequences of relaxing this assumption, allowing pay-offs to depend on both current and past numbers of cooperators.
Politics and the Life Sciences: The Journal of the Association for Politics and the Life Sciences
Though Hamilton's rule is commonly interpreted as relating to two individuals, an alternative interpretation is that it can apply to an altruistic act with respect to a large group of related persons, such as an ethnic group. Then provision of a public good to such a group can be explained by Hamilton's rule. An important class of public goods is the provision of a "legal system" for the group.
This article suggests standards and guidelines for the use of forensic hypnosis techniques in police investigations. Topics addressed include the type of procedures that should be used, intervention milieu considerations that need to be taken into account, the types of cases in which hypnosis should be avoided, and recommended qualifications for those performing the intervention.
The International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis
Using Tinbergen's 4 why questions of causation, development, evolution, and function, the authors examine hypnosis from a larger, evolutionary perspective. Reasoning by analogy, they seek to view hypnosis in terms of an action pattern that represents a self-contained behavioral program although not as rigid as seen in lower organisms. In humans, such a program develops within the context of a long developmental sequence emphasizing social connections, imitation of significant figures, and the use of linguistic symbols to regulate both internal and external processes and actions.
Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
INTRODUCTION: The Internet is revolutionizing tobacco control, but few have harnessed the Web for surveillance. We demonstrate for the first time an approach for analyzing aggregate Internet search queries that captures precise changes in population considerations about tobacco. METHODS: We compared tobacco-related Google queries originating in the United States during the week of the State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) 2009 cigarette excise tax increase with a historic baseline.