Comparative optimism can be defined as a self-serving, asymmetric judgment of the future. It is often thought to be beneficial and socially accepted, whereas comparative pessimism is correlated with depression and socially rejected. Our goal was to examine the social acceptance of comparative optimism and the social rejection of comparative pessimism in two dimensions of social judgment, social desirability and social utility, considering the attributions of dysphoria and risk-taking potential (studies 2 and 3) on outlooks on the future.
Received wisdom suggests that boundaries are, or should be, important in intimate relationships. In this essay, we focus primarily upon the beliefs and phenomenology relating to a variety of boundaries, and provide a discussion of some conceptual issues, in order to understand better the development, facilitation, and maintenance of, as well as restraints upon, intimacy. Although we attend mainly to dyadic relationships, we believe that our observations and suggestions have application to larger groups.
The present paper discusses the advent and significance of erotic feelings in psychotherapy based on the intersubjective theory. It briefly reviews the coalescence of the tradition of avoidance of physical contact in psychotherapy, and the classical and contemporary approaches to erotic transference. A clinical case is presented in an attempt to expand the significance attributed to erotic feelings in therapy and ways of relating to it: in their intrapersonal and interpersonal meanings and in the dialectics between them.
Ethnic minority males experience a disproportionate prevalence of sexually transmitted infections and HIV. Few studies have explored the beliefs that frame romantic relationships in which sexual behavior occurs. The purpose of this study was to explore the experience of romantic relationships for young ethnic minority men who partner with adolescent women with high-risk sexual histories and the beliefs about romantic relationships that underlie these relationship choices. A phenomenologic approach was used.
We examine whether lower expectations for social reward selectively applied to high intimacy contexts may help avoidantly attached individuals minimize distress from reward loss. Studies 1, 2, and 4 demonstrated that avoidant attachment was negatively associated with perceived intimacy potential in relationships involving approach of closeness (current/future partners), but not for relationships less associated with approach of closeness (ex-partners). Studies 3 and 5 manipulated the potential for intimacy among dating prospects.
Although separate literatures have emerged on effects of social threats (i.e., rejection and negative evaluation) and rewards (i.e., connection and intimacy) on the process of commitment to a romantic relationship, no research has examined the influence of both simultaneously. Using an attachment framework, we examined the relation of social threats and rewards to investment model constructs (i.e., commitment, satisfaction, investment, quality of alternatives) in 3 studies.
Rejection sensitivity - the tendency to expect, perceive, and overreact to rejection by others - is linked with individuals' expectations that their romantic partners' behaviors have negative intent, even if, perhaps, such behaviors could be considered neutral when observed by another. The aim of the present study was to test this proposition, derived from rejection sensitivity theory, using a Video-Recall Procedure with adolescent couples in the US (N†=†386 adolescents, 50% girls).
Same-sex attracted youth's well-being is jeopardized by components of minority stress, but this stress can be buffered by social support. What is unknown is whether a romantic relationship can also serve as a buffer. With an online survey we examined the link between components of minority stress, psychological well-being, and its moderated relation by romantic relationship status among 309 Dutch same-sex attracted youth (16-24 years old, 52.9% female).
Social networking sites (SNS) play an increasingly important role in maintaining geographically close romantic relationships (GCRR). However, knowledge about SNS use in long-distance romantic relationships (LDRR) is still lacking. The present study examined the relative importance of SNS in maintaining LDRR compared to GCRR, particularly with regard to the use of SNS to express involvement (via relational maintenance behaviors) and to gauge a partner's involvement (via partner surveillance and jealousy) in the relationship.
Social life is regulated by norms of fairness that constrain selfish behavior. While a substantial body of scholarship on prosocial behavior has provided evidence of such norms, large inter- and intra-personal variation in prosocial behavior still needs to be explained. The article identifies two social-structural dimensions along which people's generosity varies systematically: group attachment and social position. We conducted lab-in-the-field experiments involving 2,597 members of producer organizations in rural Uganda.