Social Environment

Publication Title: 
American Journal of Public Health

OBJECTIVES: We investigated the characteristics of the oldest old in China and examined whether the factors associated with longevity varied with advanced age. METHODS: Drawing from the largest nationally representative longitudinal sample of oldest-old adults, we stratified descriptive statistics separately by gender and urban-rural residence and then used ordered logit models to examine the multivariate factors associated with increasing age-group membership.

Author(s): 
Dupre, Matthew E.
Liu, Guangya
Gu, Danan
Publication Title: 
Transactions of the American Clinical and Climatological Association
Author(s): 
Barondess, Jeremiah A.
Publication Title: 
La Revue Du Praticien
Author(s): 
Belmin, JoÎl
Konrat, CÈcile
Publication Title: 
British Journal of Health Psychology

Kanazawa (2006) has put forward an evolutionarily grounded theory which claims that individuals in wealthier and more egalitarian societies live longer and stay healthier not because they are wealthier or more egalitarian but because they are more intelligent (2006: 637). The claim rests on an argument which asserts that general intelligence is a solution to evolutionarily novel problems and that most dangers to health in contemporary society are evolutionarily novel. Kanazawa also claims that this relationship does not hold in sub-Saharan Africa.

Author(s): 
Dickins, T. E.
Sear, R.
Wells, A. J.
Publication Title: 
Age (Dordrecht, Netherlands)

For the evolution of life histories, the trade-off between survival and reproduction is fundamental. Because sexes optimize fitness in different ways, this trade-off is expected to be resolved differently by males and females. Consequently, the sexes are predicted to respond differently to changes in resource availability. In fruit flies, research on dietary restriction has focused largely on females maintained in the absence of males, thereby neglecting sexual interactions that affect reproductive behavior of both sexes under more natural conditions.

Author(s): 
Zajitschek, Felix
Zajitschek, Susanne R. K.
Friberg, Urban
Maklakov, Alexei A.
Publication Title: 
Health and Quality of Life Outcomes

BACKGROUND: Nutrition and physical activity are major determinants of health and quality of life; however, there exists little research focusing on determinants of these behaviours in older adults. This is important, since just as these behaviours vary according to subpopulation, it is likely that the determinants also vary.

Author(s): 
McNaughton, Sarah A.
Crawford, David
Ball, Kylie
Salmon, Jo
Publication Title: 
Academic Psychiatry: The Journal of the American Association of Directors of Psychiatric Residency Training and the Association for Academic Psychiatry

OBJECTIVE: This article presents major concepts and research findings from the field of psychosomatic medicine that the authors believe should be taught to all medical students. METHOD: The authors asked senior scholars involved in psychosomatic medicine to summarize key findings in their respective fields.

Author(s): 
Novack, Dennis H.
Cameron, Oliver
Epel, Elissa
Ader, Robert
Waldstein, Shari R.
Levenstein, Susan
Antoni, Michael H.
Wainer, Alicia Rojas
Publication Title: 
Physiology & Behavior

Long-term exposure to stress and its physiological mediators, in particular cortisol, may lead to impaired telomere maintenance. In this study, we examine if greater cortisol responses to an acute stressor and/or dysregulated patterns of daily cortisol secretion are associated with shorter telomere length. Twenty-three postmenopausal women comprising caregivers for dementia partners (n=14) and age- and BMI-matched non-caregivers provided home sampling of cortisol-saliva samples at waking, 30 min after waking, and bedtime, and a 12-hour overnight urine collection.

Author(s): 
Tomiyama, A. Janet
O'Donovan, Aoife
Lin, Jue
Puterman, Eli
Lazaro, Alanie
Chan, Jessica
Dhabhar, Firdaus S.
Wolkowitz, Owen
Kirschbaum, Clemens
Blackburn, Elizabeth
Epel, Elissa
Publication Title: 
Physiology & Behavior

Long-term exposure to stress and its physiological mediators, in particular cortisol, may lead to impaired telomere maintenance. In this study, we examine if greater cortisol responses to an acute stressor and/or dysregulated patterns of daily cortisol secretion are associated with shorter telomere length. Twenty-three postmenopausal women comprising caregivers for dementia partners (n=14) and age- and BMI-matched non-caregivers provided home sampling of cortisol-saliva samples at waking, 30 min after waking, and bedtime, and a 12-hour overnight urine collection.

Author(s): 
Tomiyama, A. Janet
O'Donovan, Aoife
Lin, Jue
Puterman, Eli
Lazaro, Alanie
Chan, Jessica
Dhabhar, Firdaus S.
Wolkowitz, Owen
Kirschbaum, Clemens
Blackburn, Elizabeth
Epel, Elissa
Publication Title: 
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences

This chapter focuses on evidence linking socio-economic status (SES) to "downstream" peripheral biology. Drawing on the concept of allostatic load, we examine evidence linking lower SES with greater cumulative physiological toll on multiple major biological regulatory systems over the life course. We begin by reviewing evidence linking lower SES to poorer trajectories of aging in multiple, individual physiological systems, followed by evidence of the resulting cumulative, overall burdens of physiological dysregulation seen among those of lower SES.

Author(s): 
Seeman, Teresa
Epel, Elissa
Gruenewald, Tara
Karlamangla, Arun
McEwen, Bruce S.

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