Vertebrates exposed to stressful conditions release glucocorticoids to sustain energy expenditure. In most species elevated glucocorticoids inhibit reproduction. However individuals with limited remaining reproductive opportunities cannot afford to forgo reproduction and should resist glucocorticoid-mediated inhibition of reproductive behavior. The electric fish Brachyhypopomus gauderio has a single breeding season in its lifetime, thus we expect males to resist glucocorticoid-mediated inhibition of their sexual advertisement signals. We studied stress resistance in male B.
Early life stress (child and adolescent abuse, neglect and trauma) induces robust alterations in emotional and social functioning resulting in enhanced risk for the development of psychopathologies such as mood and aggressive disorders. Here, an overview is given on recent findings in primate and rodent models of early life stress, demonstrating that chronic deprivation of early maternal care as well as chronic deprivation of early physical interactions with peers are profound risk factors for the development of inappropriate aggressive behaviors.
An organism's behavioral and physiological and social milieu influence and are influenced by the epigenome, which is composed predominantly of chromatin and the covalent modification of DNA by methylation. Epigenetic patterns are sculpted during development to shape the diversity of gene expression programs in the organism. In contrast to the genetic sequence, which is determined by inheritance and is virtually identical in all tissues, the epigenetic pattern varies from cell type to cell type and is potentially dynamic throughout life.
The clinical features of depressive illnesses in five boys aged 14 and 15 years are described. The early stages of the illnesses were not noticed by others. Each made serious suicide attempts which resulted in their hospitalization. After this, a depressive state was revealed in each case, which in its depth and persistence was very similar to the major depressive illnesses of adults. Aetiological factors are discussed.
An understanding of the possible psychologic impediments to weight loss can promote improved therapeutic intervention for the obese patient. Certain psychological tasks are imposed by chronic medical illness including obesity. The universal stresses that accompany medical illness, the basic threat to self-esteem and sense of intactness, the fear--of loss of love and approval, of loss of control of function, of injury to body parts, of pain, and of guilt--all become psychological impediments thwarting weight loss and its maintenance.
Literature invites us to enter into the human dilemma in a manner that is different from but no less penetrating than clinical observation. The writer's craft uncovers realities other than the statistically measurable and objective. In languages far from the strictly literal and closer to indirection, symbolism, and aesthetics, the literary artist probes imagination and consciousness. He presents us with transcripts of conversations replete with intonations, and we thereby become privy to motivations and inner thoughts.
This paper describes one variation in the battering phenomenon which was initially observed among low-income women. The strategies of coercion and deception utilized by the abusive male in these relationships are described and compared with similar strategies of "mind control" utilized in more traditional "cultic" systems. The debilitating effects of these techniques on the battered female are described, as is the battering male's own separation reaction, and the probable dynamics of the men and women involved in this pathological family system.
The Journal of the American Academy of Psychoanalysis
Personal boundaries are essential for psychological stability. In psychopathology, they may be too porous, as in the case of borderline personalities, or too rigid, as in the case of narcissistic and paranoid personalities. A developmental model which could explain abnormal boundaries would postulate neglect producing porous boundaries, and intrusiveness producing rigid boundaries. Case material is presented in which patients with narcissistic personality traits had grown up with an intrusive, controlling mother, and without a father to provide a buffer.