The objective of the present article is to study health education that Sevillian seminarians (apprentice priests) received in the third part of the nineteenth century. The introduction in the seminary of courses on Natural History, Physiology and Health (courses intended to inculcate a moral-hygienic conscience and reinforce the Catholic doctrine, antidarwinism, etc.) was preceded by increasing social awareness of the concept of health.
BACKGROUND: Connectedness to school is a significant predictor of adolescent health and academic outcomes. While individual predictors of connectedness have been well-described, little is known about school-level factors which may influence connectedness. A school's ecology, or its structural, functional, and built aspects, coupled with interpersonal interactions, may also help to enhance adolescent connectedness. AIM: This study aims to identify school ecological characteristics which predict enhanced connectedness in secondary school.
Focal theory, in trying to explain why the majority of young people cope comparatively well with the variety of transitional tasks they are confronted with during adolescence, suggests that adolescents deal with only one issue at a time: concerns about heterosexual relationships peak around 11, concerns about peer acceptance around 15, and about relationship to and independence from parents at 15 for girls and 17 for boys. However, the model has been criticized for not taking into account economic problems and unemployment.
Touching is often a forgotten part of medicine. The manual medicine or therapeutic touch (TT) is much more powerful than many modern, biomedically oriented physicians think. Pain and discomfort can be alleviated just by touching the sick area and in this way help the patient to be in better contact with the tissue and organs of their body. Lack of presence in the body seems to be connected with many symptoms that can be readily reversed simply by sensitive touch.
RATIONALE: There are many interventions for HIV/AIDS that require that people know their status and hence require a HIV test. Testing that is driven by a desire to prevent the spread of the disease often has an indirect effect on others. These external effects need to be identified, quantified and included as part of the benefits and costs of testing. Pioneering analyses of HIV testing by Philipson and Posner have introduced the economic calculus of individual expected benefits and costs of activities into an understanding of the HIV epidemic.