The emergence of bacterial multidrug resistance is an increasing problem in treatment of infectious diseases. An important cause for the multidrug resistance of bacteria is the expression of multidrug efflux transporters. The multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) transporters are most recently recognized as unique efflux system for extrusion of antimicrobials and therapeutic drugs due to energy stored in either Na(+) or H(+) electrochemical gradient.
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive disease characterized clinically by recurrent respiratory tract infections and malabsorption caused by pancreatic insufficiency. Typically diagnosed during infancy or childhood, CF impairs weight gain and growth, increases susceptibility to infection, and decreases longevity. Until recently, no guidelines for infant feedings were available. A consensus report prepared through the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation summarizes guidelines for the optimal nutrition management of patients with CF.
Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
Sirtuins (silent information regulator 2 [Sir2] proteins) belong to an ancient family of evolutionary conserved nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)(+)-dependent enzymes with deacetylase and/or mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase activity. They regulate DNA repair and recombination, chromosomal stability, and gene transcription, and most importantly mediate the health-promoting effects of caloric restriction (CR), which includes the retardation of aging. At least seven Sir2 homologs, sirtuins (SIRT) 1 to 7 have been identified in mammals.
The catabolism of bodily fuels provides the energy for muscular work. Work output can be limited by the size of fuel reserves, the rate of their catabolism, the build-up of by-products, or the neurologic activation of muscle. A substance that favorably affects a step that is normally limiting, and thus increases work output, can be considered an ergogenic aid. The maximal amount of muscular force generated during brief contractions can be acutely increased during hypnosis and with the ingestion of a placebo or psychomotor stimulant.
The effect of a mercurial ayurvedic drug (kajyoli), on the concentration of Na+, K+ and Ca2+ in rat liver, kidney and brain, and on the respiratory activity of these tissues is reported. The doses used were 20 mg and 40 mg X day-1 X kg-1 body wt. daily for 30 days, the lower level being equivalent to the human dose. A marked dose-dependent decrease in respiratory activity occurred in the three tissues. The only significant changes seen in the ion concentration were a decrease in Na+ at the higher dose level in the kidney and a dose-dependent decrease in Ca2+ in the liver.
Medicinal plants described in the Indian "Ayurvedic" literature viz. Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum), Gulvel (Tinospora cardifolia), bitter Neem (Azadirachta indica), Kanher (Nerium Andicum), Vekhand (Acorus calamus), and Peacock's feather (ash) were analyzed for minor and trace elements by instrumental neutron activation analysis.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the diuretic, natriuretic and kaliuretic effects of the antihypertensive Ayurveda drug Karavi Panchaka decoction and compare it with the diuretic frusemide. DESIGN: An animal study using Sprague-Dawley rats. The volume of urine and the total sodium and potassium excreted in the urine by rats in response to orally fed Karavi Panchaka decoction were compared with rats fed with frusemide. Control experiments were done with rats receiving similar volumes of distilled water orally.
Hypoxic/ischemic disruption of ionic homeostasis is a critical trigger of neuronal injury/death in the brain. There is, however, no promising strategy against such pathophysiologic change to protect the brain from hypoxic/ischemic injury. Here, we present a novel finding that activation of delta-opioid receptors (DOR) reduced anoxic Na+ influx in the mouse cortex, which was completely blocked by DOR antagonism with naltrindole.
The Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Certain micronutrients are protective against cognitive decline. We examined whether there is any uniform pattern of circulating micronutrients cross-culturally that are associated with successful cognitive aging. For the U.S. sample, we used the stored serum/plasma of 115 participants, collected in Oregon, USA. The Okinawa sample consisted of 49 participants selected using similar inclusion criteria as the Oregon sample, from the Keys to Optimal Cognitive Aging Project. All participants were aged 85 years and older without cognitive impairment.
Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Maintenance of ionic balance is essential for neuronal functioning. Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S), a known toxic environmental gaseous pollutant, has been recently recognized as a gasotransmitter involved in numerous biological processes and is believed to play an important role in the neural activities under both physiological and pathological conditions. However, it is unclear if it plays any role in maintenance of ionic homeostasis in the brain under physiological/pathophysiological conditions.