Sodium Oxybate

Publication Title: 
Psychoneuroendocrinology

Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a GHB-/GABAB-receptor agonist. Reports from GHB abusers indicate euphoric, prosocial, and empathogenic effects of the drug. We measured the effects of GHB on mood, prosocial behavior, social and non-social cognition and assessed potential underlying neuroendocrine mechanisms. GHB (20mg/kg) was tested in 16 healthy males, using a randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over design. Subjective effects on mood were assessed by visual-analogue-scales and the GHB-Specific-Questionnaire.

Author(s): 
Bosch, Oliver G.
Eisenegger, Christoph
Gertsch, J¸rg
von Rotz, Robin
Dornbierer, Dario
Gachet, M. SalomÈ
Heinrichs, Markus
Wetter, Thomas C.
Seifritz, Erich
Quednow, Boris B.
Publication Title: 
Acta Anaesthesiologica Belgica

A simplified, safe and flexible technique of anesthesia, based on a limited number of relatively cheap drugs, and allowing ventilation with air, was applied to 60 patients undergoing operations of at least 60 minutes' duration. The required depth of hypnosis was produced by intravenous diazepam or gamma-OH, whilst droperidol and fentanyl provided a satisfactory degree of sedation and analgesia. Pancuronium bromide was used for muscle relaxation. Spontaneous respiration was resumed immediately after postoperative use of nalorphine and neostigmine.

Author(s): 
Lelkens, J. P.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics

The pharmacokinetics of sodium-gamma-hydroxybutyrate (NaGHB) have been examined as functions of dose and route of administration. The elimination of NaGHB appeared to be controlled by a capacity-limited process which can be described by Michaelis-Menten kinetics.

Author(s): 
Lettieri, J. T.
Fung, H. L.
Publication Title: 
Neuropharmacology
Author(s): 
Winters, W. D.
Kott, K. S.
Publication Title: 
Brain Research. Brain Research Protocols

The exogenous administration of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), a constituent of the mammalian brain where it likely functions as a neurotransmitter or a neuromodulator, exerts a number of pharmacological effects, including sedation and hypnosis. The present paper describes a procedure for selective breeding of two rat lines which markedly differ in sensitivity to the sedative/hypnotic effect of GHB. Selective breeding originated from Wistar rats showing opposite sensitivity to the sedative/hypnotic effect of 1 g/kg GHB (i.p.).

Author(s): 
Lobina, C.
Colombo, G.
Brunetti, G.
Diaz, G.
Melis, S.
Pani, M.
Serra, S.
Vacca, G.
Gessa, G. L.
Carai, M. A.
Publication Title: 
European Journal of Pharmacology

Different effects of moderate to high doses of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid, including sedation/hypnosis, have been found to be blocked by gamma-aminobutyric acidB (GABAB) receptor antagonists. The present study investigated whether the protective effect of GABAB receptor antagonists extends also to gamma-hydroxybutyric acid-induced mortality. To this aim, the present study investigated the effect of the GABAB receptor antagonist, (2S)(+)-5,5-dimethyl-2-morpholineacetic acid (SCH 50911; 100 mg/kg, ip), on mortality induced by gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (1-6 g/kg, ip) in DBA mice.

Author(s): 
Carai, Mauro A. M.
Colombo, Giancarlo
Gessa, Gian Luigi
Publication Title: 
Critical Reviews in Neurobiology

Neurosteroids--i.e., steroid produced in brain ex novo or through metabolism of precursors--affect neuronal and brain functions through genomic and nongenomic mechanisms, depending on their molecular structure. Among neurosteroids, 3alpha-hydroxylated, 5alpha-reduced metabolites of progesterone (3alpha-hydroxy,5alpha-pregnan-20one/3alpha,5alpha-THP) and deoxycorticosterone (3alpha,21-dihydroxy,5alpha-pregnan-20one/3alpha,5alpha-THDOC) are positive allosteric modulators of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) action at GABAA receptors.

Author(s): 
Barbaccia, Maria Luisa
Publication Title: 
Brain Research. Brain Research Protocols

Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB)-sensitive (GHB-S) and GHB-resistant (GHB-R) rats have been selectively bred for their opposite sensitivity to the sedative/hypnotic effect of GHB. This opposite sensitivity has been found to generalize to the GABA(B) receptor agonist, baclofen. A control line [named GHB-control (GHB-C)] has been derived from the foundation stock of GHB-S and GHB-R rats. GHB-C rats have been bred without any evaluation of their sensitivity to GHB.

Author(s): 
Lobina, Carla
Colombo, Giancarlo
Orrù, Alessandro
Maccioni, Paola
Gessa, Gian Luigi
Carai, Mauro A. M.
Publication Title: 
Acta Neurologica Scandinavica

Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a drug of abuse that causes euphoria, anxiolysis, and hypnosis. The recent rise in the recreational intake of GHB, as well as its association with 'drug rape', has turned the attention to GHB in acute hospital settings. Acutely admitted GHB intoxicated patients may display various levels of sedation or coma, but may also show paradoxical agitation, combativeness, or self-injurious behaviors.

Author(s): 
Drasbek, K. R.
Christensen, J.
Jensen, K.
Publication Title: 
Forensic Science International

Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is an increasingly popular drug of abuse that causes stimulation, euphoria, anxiolysis or hypnosis, depending on the dose used. Low doses of the drug are used recreationally, and also implicated in drug-facilitated sexual assaults. Because of the unusually steep dose-response curves, accidental GHB overdosing, leading to coma, seizures or death can occur. Being a controlled substance, GHB is often substituted with its non-scheduled precursors gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) and 1,4-butanediol (BD), which are rapidly metabolized into GHB in the body.

Author(s): 
Kankaanpää, Aino
Liukkonen, Raija
Ariniemi, Kari
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