Solubility

Publication Title: 
Journal of Ethnopharmacology

The aqueous extract from Terminalia chebula was tested for its ability to inhibit the growth and some physiological functions of Streptococcus mutans. The extract strongly inhibited the growth, sucrose induced adherence and glucan induced aggregation of S. mutans. Mouthrinsing with a 10% solution of the extract inhibited the salivary bacterial count and salivary glycolysis.

Author(s): 
Jagtap, A. G.
Karkera, S. G.
Publication Title: 
Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin

Terminalia chebula has been widely used in India as a folk medicine. This study investigated the in vivo anti-hyperglycemia and anti-diabetic complication effects of the EtOAc-soluble portion of ethanolic extract of T. chebula fruit (EETC) containing 29.4% chebulic acid. Rats were divided into non-diabetic, untreated diabetic and diabetic groups. Streptozotocin (40 mg/kg body weight (BW))-induced diabetic rats were orally administered the aminoguanidine (100 mg/kg BW), high dose (500 mg/kg BW; HEETC) and low dose (100 mg/kg BW; LEETC) for 13 weeks.

Author(s): 
Kim, Ji-hoon
Hong, Chung-Oui
Koo, Yun-chang
Kim, Su-Jung
Lee, Kwang-Won
Publication Title: 
Pharmaceutical Biology

Context Chebulae Fructus is used as an herbal remedy for diarrhoea in traditional Chinese medicine. However, there is no scientific evidence to support its antidiarrhoeal activity. Objective This study evaluates the antidiarrhoeal properties of Chebulae Fructus aqueous extract (CFAE) and determines the active fraction. Materials and methods The antidiarrhoeal effect of CFAE (200-800?mg/kg) was investigated by determining the wet dropping, intestinal transit in BALB/c mice and enteropooling in Wister rats.

Author(s): 
Sheng, Zunlai
Yan, Xin
Zhang, Ruili
Ni, Huilin
Cui, Yuanxu
Ge, Junwei
Shan, Anshan
Publication Title: 
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences

The Ergh-al-Nassa pill (Hab) is a traditional combination suggested as one of the most effective preparations useful for treatment of sciatica. Although traditional preparations can be applied as new therapeutic drugs for investigations and clinical trials, they need to be reformulated to achieve pharmacopoeial standards for modern medicine. In this research, based on seven traditional Persian pharmacopeias for Ergh-al-NassaHab, nine different molded tablets were reformulated. Each formulation comprised the same amount of colchicum, ginger, aloe and yellow myrobalan fruit.

Author(s): 
Zargaran, Arman
Daneshamouz, Saeid
Kordafshari, Gholamreza
Mohagheghzadeh, Abdolali
Publication Title: 
Human Molecular Genetics

In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), the progressive loss of motor neurons is accompanied by extensive muscle denervation, resulting in paralysis and ultimately death. Upregulation of amyloid beta (A4) precursor protein (APP) in muscle fibres coincides with symptom onset in both sporadic ALS patients and the SOD1(G93A) mouse model of familial ALS.

Author(s): 
Bryson, J. Barney
Hobbs, Carl
Parsons, Michael J.
Bosch, Karen D.
Pandraud, Amelie
Walsh, Frank S.
Doherty, Patrick
Greensmith, Linda
Publication Title: 
Neuromolecular Medicine

A common cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is mutations in superoxide dismutase-1, which provoke the disease by an unknown mechanism. We have previously found that soluble hydrophobic misfolded mutant human superoxide dismutase-1 species are enriched in the vulnerable spinal cords of transgenic model mice. The levels were broadly inversely correlated with life spans, suggesting involvement in the pathogenesis.

Author(s): 
Zetterstrˆm, Per
Graffmo, Karin S.
Andersen, Peter M.
Br‰nnstrˆm, Thomas
Marklund, Stefan L.
Publication Title: 
Molecular Vision

PURPOSE: Human eye lenses contain cells that persist from embryonic development. These unique, highly specialized fiber cells located at the core (nucleus) of the lens undergo pseudo-apoptosis to become devoid of cell nuclei and most organelles. Ostensibly lacking in protein transcriptional capabilities, it is currently believed that these nuclear fiber cells owe their extreme longevity to the perseverance of highly stable and densely packed crystallin proteins.

Author(s): 
Stewart, Daniel N.
Lango, Jozsef
Nambiar, Krishnan P.
Falso, Miranda J. S.
FitzGerald, Paul G.
Rocke, David M.
Hammock, Bruce D.
Buchholz, Bruce A.
Publication Title: 
PloS One

Rhodiola rosea has been extensively used to improve physical and mental performance and to protect against stress. We, and others, have reported that R. rosea can extend lifespan in flies, worms, and yeast. However, its molecular mechanism is currently unknown. Here, we tested whether R. rosea might act through a pathway related to dietary restriction (DR) that can extend lifespan in a range of model organisms.

Author(s): 
Schriner, Samuel E.
Lee, Kevin
Truong, Stephanie
Salvadora, Kathyrn T.
Maler, Steven
Nam, Alexander
Lee, Thomas
Jafari, Mahtab
Publication Title: 
Archives Internationales De Pharmacodynamie Et De Thérapie

The central nervous activity of the aqueous extract of kava was examined in mice, and compared to the effect of the lipid-soluble extract. The aqueous extract caused a loss of spontaneous activity without loss of muscle tone. No hypnotic effect was seen, but some analgesia was produced. The anticonvulsant effect against strychnine was very slight and there was no evidence of local anesthetic action. There was a slight anti-apomorphine effect and tetrabenazine-induced ptosis was decreased.

Author(s): 
Jamieson, D. D.
Duffield, P. H.
Cheng, D.
Duffield, A. M.
Publication Title: 
Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology

Propofol (2,6-diisopropylphenol) is inadequably soluble in water and is therefore formulated as a lipid emulsion. This may have disadvantages when propofol is used to provide total intravenous anaesthesia or especially during long-term sedation. There has been considerable interest in the development of new propofol formulations or propofol prodrugs. GPI 15715 or fospropofol (Aquavan injection; Guilford Pharmaceutical, Baltimore, MD) is the first water-soluble prodrug that has been thoroughly studied in human volunteers and patients.

Author(s): 
Fechner, J.
Schwilden, H.
Schüttler, J.

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