South Africa

Publication Title: 
South African Medical Journal = Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde

Compared with our ancestor's diet, that consumed by present-day Western populations is higher in intake of energy, of protein (especially animal protein) and of fat (especially animal fat), but lower in intake of fibre-containing cereal foods; this diet is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality from degenerative diseases.

Author(s): 
Walker, A. R.
Publication Title: 
Clinical Nutrition (Edinburgh, Scotland)

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Adequate dietary intake of antioxidants is vital for the promotion of health, well being and longevity of the elderly. This study assessed the prevalence of vitamin A (retinol) and vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) deficiency in a population of low-income South African elderly. METHODS: Serum vitamin A and vitamin E concentrations were determined in 235 persons aged 60-93 years in Sharpeville, South Africa. Dietary assessment was done using 24-h recall. Weight and height were measured to determine body mass index.

Author(s): 
Oldewage-Theron, Wilna H.
Samuel, Folake O.
Djoulde, Roger D.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Economic Entomology

Cleruchoides noackae Lin and Huber (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae) is a solitary egg parasitoid of Thaumastocoris peregrinus Carpintero and DellapÈ (Hemiptera: Thaumastocoridae). The parasitoid was first described in 2009 and its biology and rearing are poorly understood. A key obstacle to the use of C. noackae as a biological control agent has been the ability to consistently rear it under quarantine conditions. This study reports on a series of experiments conducted in quarantine to rear C.

Author(s): 
Mutitu, Eston K.
Garnas, Jeffrey R.
Hurley, Brett P.
Wingfield, Michael J.
Harney, Marlene
Bush, Samantha J.
Slippers, Bernard
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Social Psychology

The Munro-Adams Love Attitude Scale was administered to 133 randomly chosen final-year undergraduate White South African and British university students in this examination of their attitudes toward love, courtship, and marriage in relation to the observation that, although South African tertiary educational institutions exist within the authoritarian and restrictive culture of apartheid, they nevertheless are modeled on the British educational system, which has its roots deeply embedded within a politically democratic context.

Author(s): 
Stones, C. R.
Publication Title: 
Social Science & Medicine (1982)

Violence against women within sexual relationships is a neglected area in public health despite the fact that, in partially defining women's capacity to protect themselves against STDs, pregnancy and unwanted sexual intercourse, it directly affects female reproductive health. This paper presents the findings of a qualitative study conducted among Xhosa-speaking adolescent women in South Africa which revealed male violent and coercive practices to dominate their sexual relationships.

Author(s): 
Wood, K.
Maforah, F.
Jewkes, R.
Publication Title: 
Medical Anthropology Quarterly

Sexual violence within as well as outside sexual relationships has far-reaching public health and human rights implications and is a continuing focus of popular debate, media coverage, and research in postapartheid South Africa. Partly because it has been shown to affect individual vulnerability to HIV/AIDS, sexual violence has in recent years become framed as a global public health issue.

Author(s): 
Wood, Kate
Lambert, Helen
Jewkes, Rachel
Publication Title: 
Culture, Health & Sexuality

In KwaZulu/Natal, South Africa, the social construction of young people's sexuality reflects both a complex historical process of cultural and religious integration, as well as the contemporary resurgence of 'traditionalism'. How do young people interpret these factors to construct and give meaning to their own sexualities? This multi-method qualitative study examined sexuality and relationship formation among sexually experienced young people aged 14-19 in a rural sub-district. In this setting, sexual activity is highly stigmatised, particularly for young teenage women.

Author(s): 
Harrison, Abigail
Publication Title: 
Culture, Health & Sexuality

Young people's daily mobility in sub-Saharan Africa remains largely invisible and under-researched. Drawing on qualitative and quantitative data from the Child Mobility Project in South Africa, we show how young people's daily journeys (to school and other places) shape, and are shaped by, the possibility of sexual encounters.

Author(s): 
Hampshire, Kate
Porter, Gina
Mashiri, Mac
Maponya, Goodhope
Dube, Sipho
Publication Title: 
Culture, Health & Sexuality

How do young South Africans give meaning to love? In this paper we draw on findings from an interview study to examine the ways in which young Africans, aged 16 to 17 years in a poor township in KwaZulu-Natal province, express ideals of love and romance. Their claims to love we show are strategic advantages as they negotiate poverty and economic marginalisation. Girls' ideals of love are tied to their aspirations towards middle-class consumerism. Love becomes inseparable from the idealisation of men who provide.

Author(s): 
Bhana, Deevia
Pattman, Rob
Publication Title: 
Trials

BACKGROUND: Couples-based HIV counseling and testing (CHCT) is a proven strategy to reduce the risk of HIV transmission between partners, but uptake of CHCT is low. We describe the study design of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) aimed to increase participation in CHCT and reduce sexual risk behavior for HIV among heterosexual couples in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. We hypothesize that the rate of participation in CHCT will be higher and sexual risk behavior will be lower in the intervention group as compared to the control.

Author(s): 
Darbes, Lynae A.
van Rooyen, Heidi
Hosegood, Victoria
Ngubane, Thulani
Johnson, Mallory O.
Fritz, Katherine
McGrath, Nuala

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