Recent behavioral experiments aimed at understanding the evolutionary foundations of human cooperation have suggested that a willingness to engage in costly punishment, even in one-shot situations, may be part of human psychology and a key element in understanding our sociality. However, because most experiments have been confined to students in industrialized societies, generalizations of these insights to the species have necessarily been tentative.
Mutations in the chloroquine resistance (CQR) transporter gene of Plasmodium falciparum (Pfcrt; chromosome 7) play a key role in CQR, while mutations in the multidrug resistance gene (Pfmdr1; chromosome 5) play a significant role in the parasite's resistance to a variety of antimalarials and also modulate CQR. To compare patterns of genetic variation at Pfcrt and Pfmdr1 loci, we investigated 460 blood samples from P.
The loss of chloroquine due to selection and spread of drug resistant Plasmodium falciparum parasites has greatly impacted malaria control, especially in highly endemic areas of Africa. Since chloroquine removal a decade ago, the guidelines to treat falciparum malaria suggest combination therapies, preferentially with an artemisinin derivative. One of the recommended partner drugs is amodiaquine, a pro-drug that relies on its active metabolite monodesethylamodiaquine, and is still effective in areas of Africa, but not in regions of South America. Genetic studies on P.
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium falciparum malaria resistant to chloroquine and pyrimethamine originated in limited foci and migrated to Africa. It remains unresolved whether P. falciparum resistance to sulfadoxine, which is conferred by mutations in dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS), evolved following a similar pattern. METHODS: The dhps locus of 893 P. falciparum isolates from 12 countries in Asia, the Pacific Islands, Africa, and South America was sequenced.
Malaria is a protozoan disease transmitted by the bite of the Anopheles mosquito. Among five species that can infect humans, Plasmodium falciparum is responsible for the most severe human malaria. Resistance of P. falciparum to chloroquine and pyrimethamine/sulfadoxine, conventionally used antimalarial drugs, is already widely distributed in many endemic areas. As a result, artemisinin-based combination therapies have been rapidly and widely adopted as first-line antimalarial treatments since the mid-2000s.
Despite growing transnational migration between the United States and Latin American countries, culturally relevant conceptualizations of spirituality among Latinas/os remain lacking in healthcare research. Grounded in Latina feminist theology, this article elucidates cultural values that influence spirituality and describes findings from a study using a new questionnaire to explore spirituality among Latinas in Puerto Rico and the US mainland.