OBJECTIVE: To review the literature on the comparative efficacy of psychological, behavioural and medical therapies for acrophobia (fear of heights). DATA SOURCES: Multiple databases were searched through the Cochrane Common Mental Disorders review group on 1 December 2015. DATA SYNTHESIS: The data were extracted independently and were pooled using RevMan version 5.3.5.
Epidemiological evidence implies a role for chronic stress and stress-related disorders in the etiopathogenesis of sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although chronic stress exposure during various stages of life has been shown to exacerbate AD-related cognitive deficits and neuropathology in AD mouse models, the role of stress exposure during the prenatal period on AD development and progression remained to be investigated.
Visual imagery, hypnosis, creativity, dreams, and "imagination" have all been linked conceptually by theoreticians of various schools to an increased influence of right hemispheric processes compared with left hemispheric processes. This paper reviews empirical studies that have addressed the issue of whether there is an increased activation or efficiency of right hemispheric processes during imagery, hypnosis, rapid eye movement sleep, and dreaming. Overall, there is considerable evidence supporting the notion of increased right hemispheric activation in imagery.
Attention, suggestion, context and expectation can all exert top-down influence on bottom-up processes (e.g., stimulus-driven mechanisms). Identifying the functional neuroanatomy that subserves top-down influences on sensory information processing can unlock the neural substrates of how suggestion can modulate behavior. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we scanned 10 healthy participants (five men) viewing five bistable figures. Participants received a directional cue to perceive a particular spatial orientation a few seconds before the bistable figure appeared.
Neglect patients are not aware of stimuli in the contralesional space. We aimed to simulate neglect-like behaviour in healthy participants, by asking them to orient their visuospatial attention in two conditions: non-hypnotic suggestion and post-hypnotic suggestion. Results showed that directing visuospatial attention to one side of space caused neglect of stimuli in the opposite side of space, but only when participants were under post-hypnotic suggestion.
Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne De Psychiatrie
Preadolescent boys with Gender Identity Disorder (N = 13), their brothers (N = 8) and boys referred for psychiatric assessment (N = 10) were administered age-appropriate Wechsler intelligence scales. Four hypotheses regarding patterns of intellectual functioning and spatial ability were tested. A previous suggestion that the development of boyhood femininity is associated with higher than average IQ was not supported, since the IQs of the feminine boys and their brothers did not differ.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
The response properties of a class of motion detectors (Reichardt detectors) are investigated extensively here. Since the outputs of the detectors, responding to an image undergoing two-dimensional rigid translation, are dependent on both the image velocity and the image intensity distribution, they are nonuniform across the entire image, even though the object is moving rigidly as a whole. To achieve perceptual "oneness" in the rigid motion, we are led to contend that visual perception must take place in a space that is non-Euclidean in nature.