Cajal (1852-1934) first had contact with the fields of psychiatry and psychology through the experimental study of hypnotism. He interpreted this phenomenon as an aberrant failure of the machinery of the brain. It may be that Cajal's initial interest in the theory of hypnotic suggestion eventually led him to study the biological phenomena related to sleep and dreams, in the neurophysiological explanation of which he disagreed openly with Freud's postulates.
The aims of this study are to analyze Spanish psychologists' beliefs and attitudes toward hypnosis and to examine the responses obtained in different branches of the Spanish Psychological Association. The results will be useful for this Association in order to know psychologists' needs of training in hypnosis. The Valencia Scale of Attitudes and Beliefs toward Hypnosis-Therapist was applied to 2434 Spanish psychologists. Results indicated that participants, in general, hold correct beliefs about hypnosis and showed a positive attitude toward it.
BACKGROUND: Capture, handling and chemical restraint are basic techniques often needed for research or management purposes. The aim of this study was testing a combination of tiletamine-zolazepam (TZ) (3 mg/kg) and medetomidine (M) (0.05 mg/kg) on Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa). A total of 77 free-ranging wild boar were captured by means of portable cages and corral traps and then anaesthetized with intramuscular darts using a blowpipe. The individual response to chemical immobilization was characterized using anaesthetic, clinical, and serum biochemical variables.
Fibromyalgia (FM) is a debilitating rheumatic disorder characterized mainly by the presence of continual and widespread musculoskeletal pain, in addition to other disturbing symptoms. There is inconsistent evidence about the effectiveness of the treatments developed so far, making FM a chronic disease that is difficult to treat. The aim of this literature review was to analyze the empirical studies about psychological treatment of FM that have been published over the last twenty years.
Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences
Towards the end of the nineteenth century, some Spanish physicians sought to legitimize hypnotherapy within medicine. At the same time, hypnotism was being popularized among the Spanish population through stage hypnosis shows. In order to extend the use of medical hypnotherapy, some physicians made efforts to demarcate the therapeutic use of hypnotic suggestion from its application for recreational purposes, as performed by stage hypnotists.
In Spain, detoxification in general hospitals plays an important role in the medical care of patients. We aim to provide clinicians with information on the prevalence and correlates of psychiatric co-morbidity in drug abusers in detoxification. A sample of 115 substance-abuse inpatients (mean age 31.9 +/- 6.4 years) in a Detoxification Unit of a general university hospital was studied using the Spanish version of the PRISM. Most of the patients had multiple dependence diagnoses and co-morbid axis I or axis II psychiatric disorders.
Our aim is to describe the current situation regarding the diagnosis and treatment of addiction in a variety of settings in Spain. Four-hundred and twenty-seven physicians known to treat addicted patients in non-private settings were recruited and agreed to participate. Each physician provided clinical and anonymous information on the first 6 consecutive patients who attended on a scheduled day.
Identity fusion is a feeling of oneness with the group that induces people to tether their feelings of personal agency to the group. We accordingly proposed that increasing the agency of fused persons by elevating autonomic arousal would amplify their tendency to endorse and actually enact pro-ingroup behavior. In 4 experiments, increasing autonomic arousal through physical exercise elevated heart rates and fusion-unrelated activity among all participants. Fused participants, however, uniquely responded to arousal by translating elevated agency into endorsement of pro-group activity.
Maimonides, Moses ben Maimon (1135-1204), Jewish physician, philosopher and scholar was the first after Hippocrates to write a text of a "prayer" he spoke out at the beginning of his medical profession, e. i. when he took oath. The text of "Maimonides's prayer" is today obligatory in some schools of medicine in the United States of America.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a multidisciplinary treatment program in patients severely affected by fibromyalgia. Thirty-four fibromyalgia patients were randomly divided into two groups. The control group: 17 women who continued their medical treatment and participated in four educational sessions and the experimental group that included 17 patients who besides the former medical treatment also underwent a weekly 1-h session program for 8 weeks including massage therapy, ischemic pressure on the 18 tender points, aerobic exercise and thermal therapy.