Specific Pathogen-Free Organisms

Publication Title: 
Cell

Diminished mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and aerobic capacity are associated with reduced longevity. We tested whether resveratrol (RSV), which is known to extend lifespan, impacts mitochondrial function and metabolic homeostasis. Treatment of mice with RSV significantly increased their aerobic capacity, as evidenced by their increased running time and consumption of oxygen in muscle fibers.

Author(s): 
Lagouge, Marie
Argmann, Carmen
Gerhart-Hines, Zachary
Meziane, Hamid
Lerin, Carles
Daussin, Frederic
Messadeq, Nadia
Milne, Jill
Lambert, Philip
Elliott, Peter
Geny, Bernard
Laakso, Markku
Puigserver, Pere
Auwerx, Johan
Publication Title: 
Journal of Theoretical Biology

It is suggested that pathogen and parasite avoidance act as a driving force for kin selection. Preferential association with relatives decreases the probability of infection with unfamiliar pathogens. Altruistic behavior towards kin will further decrease the danger of infection by increasing the representation of relatives in a group. Such a behavioral strategy could evolve if pathogen resistance were heritable. Highly polymorphic major histocompatibility (MHC) genes largely determine heritable resistance to particular pathogens.

Author(s): 
Lewis, K.
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

Artemether, a methyl ether derivative of dihydroartemisinin, not only exhibits antimalarial properties, but also possesses strong activity against schistosomula, the immature stages of a parasitic worm that can cause schistosomiasis. To test if the effect would be similar to that of irradiation with respect to the induction of immunologic protective responses, groups of mice were infected with Schistosoma mansoni cercariae and treated with artemether at 1-3 weeks post-infection.

Author(s): 
Bergquist, Robert
Utzinger, Jürg
Chollet, Jacques
Shu-Hua, Xiao
Weiss, Niklaus A.
Tanner, Marcel
Publication Title: 
Fitoterapia

The present study investigates the effect of in vivo administration of alcoholic extract of Tinospora cordifolia whole plant (ALTC) on the proliferation and myeloid differentiation of bone marrow hematopoietic precursor cells in mice bearing a transplantable T cell lymphoma of spontaneous origin designated as Dalton's lymphoma (DL). BMC obtained from ALTC administered DL-bearing mice showed an enhanced BMC proliferation and colony forming ability in vitro in response to L929 conditioned medium as a source of colony stimulating factor (CSF).

Author(s): 
Singh, Sukh Mahendra
Singh, Nisha
Shrivastava, Pratima
Publication Title: 
Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental

Diets that are high in dietary fiber are reported to have substantial health benefits. We sought to compare the metabolic effects of 3 types of dietary fibers -- sugarcane fiber (SCF), psyllium (PSY), and cellulose (CEL) -- on body weight, carbohydrate metabolism, and stomach ghrelin gene expression in a high-fat diet-fed mouse model. Thirty-six male mice (C57BL/6) were randomly divided into 4 groups that consumed high-fat diet alone (HFD) or high-fat diet containing 10% SCF, PSY, and CEL, respectively.

Author(s): 
Wang, Zhong Q.
Zuberi, Aamir R.
Zhang, Xian H.
Macgowan, Jacalyn
Qin, Jianhua
Ye, Xin
Son, Leslie
Wu, Qinglin
Lian, Kun
Cefalu, William T.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry

An ethanolic extract of Artemisia dracunculus L. (PMI 5011) has been observed to decrease glucose and insulin levels in animal models, but the cellular mechanisms by which insulin action is enhanced in vivo are not precisely known. In this study, we evaluated the effects of PMI 5011 to modulate gene expression and cellular signaling through the insulin receptor in skeletal muscle of KK-A(y) mice. Eighteen male KK-A(y) mice were randomized to a diet (w/w) mixed with PMI 5011 (1%) or diet alone for 8 weeks.

Author(s): 
Wang, Zhong Q.
Ribnicky, David
Zhang, Xian H.
Zuberi, Aamir
Raskin, Ilya
Yu, Yongmei
Cefalu, William T.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Nutrition

Rats fed ad libitum (group 1) had little change in fat cell number in epididymal depots from 6 to 27 months of age, but a marked increase in fat cell number in perirenal depots between 6 and 18 months. Food restriction of rats to 60% of group 1 from 6 weeks of age on (group 2) reduced fat cell number in both depots throughout life and prevented an increase between 6 and 18 months in perirenal depots.

Author(s): 
Bertrand, H. A.
Stacy, C.
Masoro, E. J.
Yu, B. P.
Murata, I.
Maeda, H.
Publication Title: 
Cancer Research

Although the dysregulation of physiological signals and mechanisms controlling cell proliferation has been a major focus in cancer research, recent evidence suggests that explicit evaluation of apoptosis or physiological cell death may be equally important in understanding multistage carcinogenesis. Dietary restriction of rodents is well known to reproducibly retard development of spontaneous and chemically induced tumors. We reasoned that the decrease in metabolic and hormonal trophic factors induced with this intervention could promote selective cell deletion via apoptosis.

Author(s): 
James, S. J.
Muskhelishvili, L.
Publication Title: 
Physiological Genomics

Caloric restriction (CR) increases healthy life span in a range of organisms. The underlying mechanisms are not understood but appear to include changes in gene expression, protein function, and metabolism. Recent studies demonstrate that acute CR alters mortality rates within days in flies. Multitissue transcriptional changes and concomitant metabolic responses to acute CR have not been described.

Author(s): 
Selman, Colin
Kerrison, Nicola D.
Cooray, Anisha
Piper, Matthew D. W.
Lingard, Steven J.
Barton, Richard H.
Schuster, Eugene F.
Blanc, Eric
Gems, David
Nicholson, Jeremy K.
Thornton, Janet M.
Partridge, Linda
Withers, Dominic J.
Publication Title: 
The Histochemical Journal

The immunophenotype of HT29 human colon cancer cells implanted into severe combined immunodeficient mice was assessed in primary tumours and their metastases in the lungs using an indirect immunohistochemical method. After primary tumours were surgically removed, the metastases were given time to develop, thus paralleling the clinical situation. While vimentin was negative in both primary and secondary tumours, E-cadherin was present as membrane-bound labelling in the primary tumours only.

Author(s): 
Mitchell, B. S.
Horny, H. P.
Schumacher, U.

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