Specimen Handling

Publication Title: 
The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

BACKGROUND: This is an update of a 2008 Cochrane review. Breastfeeding is important. However, not all infants can feed at the breast and methods of expressing milk need evaluation. OBJECTIVES: To assess acceptability, effectiveness, safety, effect on milk composition, contamination and cost implications of methods of milk expression. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (March 2014), CINAHL (1982 to March 2014), conference proceedings, secondary references and contacted researchers.

Author(s): 
Becker, Genevieve E.
Smith, Hazel A.
Cooney, Fionnuala
Publication Title: 
Journal of Clinical Apheresis

Extension of the storage period of apheresis platelets to seven or ten days may be possible with the implementation of screening for bacteria. This, however, may impair platelet quality, and additive compounds that improve storage parameters would be desirable. Apheresis platelets were harvested using the Cobe LRS device. Part of the product was aliquoted into two CLX bags, 60 ml into each, on day 0. L-carnitine (LC) to a final concentration of 5 mM was added to one container and saline to the other.

Author(s): 
Sweeney, Joseph D.
Kouttab, Nicola M.
Arduini, Arduino
Publication Title: 
Clinical Anatomy (New York, N.Y.)

It is remarkable that the famous ÈcorchÈs of HonorÈ Fragonard have survived the centuries to reach us today. Studies carried out by several teams have established details of the technique used by Fragonard that help to explain their longevity. The injection of the vessels was achieved by means of a mixture of mutton tallow and pine resin diluted in essence of turpentine and essential oils. This gave Fragonard a very high success rate. Above all, he did not add pigments to his mixture while injecting the veins, and this facilitated the procedure.

Author(s): 
Degueurce, Christophe
vo Duy, Sung
Bleton, Jean
Hugon, Paulette
Cadot, Laure
Tchapla, Alain
Adds, Philip
Publication Title: 
CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association journal = journal de l'Association medicale canadienne

BACKGROUND: Umbilical cord blood is used as a source of hematopoietic stem cells for bone marrow transplantation in the treatment of malignant and nonmalignant disease. We sought to examine pregnant women's knowledge and attitudes regarding cord blood banking, as their support is crucial to the success of cord blood transplant programs. METHODS: A questionnaire examining sociodemographic factors and women's attitudes to cord blood banking was developed on the basis of findings from 2 focus groups and a pilot study.

Author(s): 
Fernandez, Conrad V.
Gordon, Kevin
Van den Hof, Michiel
Taweel, Shaureen
Baylis, FranÁoise
Publication Title: 
Malaria Journal

BACKGROUND: Introduction of artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) has boosted interest in parasite-based malaria diagnosis, leading to increased use of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), particularly in rural settings where microscopy is limited. With donor support, national malaria control programmes are now procuring large quantities of RDTs. The scarcity of health facilities and trained personnel in many sub-Saharan African countries means that limiting RDT use to such facilities would exclude a significant proportion of febrile cases.

Author(s): 
Harvey, Steven A.
Jennings, Larissa
Chinyama, Masela
Masaninga, Fred
Mulholland, Kurt
Bell, David R.
Publication Title: 
Malaria Journal

BACKGROUND: Artesunate plus sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine is one of the four artemisinin-based combination therapies currently recommended by WHO as first-line treatment for falciparum malaria. Sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine is also used for intermittent preventive treatment for malaria in pregnancy. Drug use patterns and drug pharmacokinetics are important factors impacting the spread of drug resistant parasites hence it is imperative to monitor the effect of pharmacokinetic variability on therapeutic efficacy.

Author(s): 
Gbotosho, Grace O.
Happi, Christian T.
Sijuade, Abayomi O.
Sowunmi, Akin
Oduola, Ayoade M. J.
Publication Title: 
Malaria Journal

BACKGROUND: Malaria prevalence has recently declined markedly in many parts of Tanzania and other sub-Saharan African countries due to scaling-up of control interventions including more efficient treatment regimens (e.g. artemisinin-based combination therapy) and insecticide-treated bed nets. Although continued molecular surveillance of malaria parasites is important to early identify emerging anti-malarial drug resistance, it is becoming increasingly difficult to obtain parasite samples from ongoing studies, such as routine drug efficacy trials.

Author(s): 
Ishengoma, Deus S.
Lwitiho, Sudi
Madebe, Rashid A.
Nyagonde, Nyagonde
Persson, Ola
Vestergaard, Lasse S.
Bygbjerg, Ib C.
Lemnge, Martha M.
Alifrangis, Michael
Publication Title: 
Malaria Journal

BACKGROUND: Delayed clearance of Plasmodium falciparum parasites is used as an operational indicator of potential artemisinin resistance. Effective community-based systems to detect P. falciparum cases remaining positive 72 hours after initiating treatment would be valuable for guiding case follow-up in areas of known resistance risk and for detecting areas of emerging resistance. METHODS: Systems incorporating existing networks of village malaria workers (VMWs) to monitor day three-positive P. falciparum cases were piloted in three provinces in western Cambodia.

Author(s): 
Cox, Jonathan
Dy Soley, Lek
Bunkea, Tol
Sovannaroth, Siv
Soy Ty, Kheang
Ngak, Song
Bjorge, Steven
Ringwald, Pascal
Mellor, Steven
Sintasath, David
Meek, Sylvia
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry

Equol (EQ) is produced by intestinal bacteria from the soy isoflavone daidzein (DE) in 30%-60% of the population and is believed to provide benefits from soy intake. A robust EQ status definition is lacking, and it is uncertain whether EQ is formed consistently within an individual and ceases upon oral antibiotic treatment. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled soy intervention trial with 350 postmenopausal women, DE and EQ were analyzed by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry at baseline and every 6 months over 2.5 years in overnight urine, spot urine and plasma.

Author(s): 
Franke, Adrian A.
Lai, Jennifer F.
Halm, Brunhild M.
Pagano, Ian
Kono, Naoko
Mack, Wendy J.
Hodis, Howard N.
Publication Title: 
AIDS (London, England)

The review explores the field of biobanking as it has evolved from a simple collection of frozen specimens to the virtual biobank. Biorepository and biospecimen science has evolved in response to the changing landscape of external regulatory pressures, the advances made in the biological sciences, and the advent of the computer chip. Biospecimen banking is a growing enterprise crucial to health science research and other biological sciences.

Author(s): 
De Souza, Yvonne G.
Greenspan, John S.

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