DNA methylation plays a vital role in normal cellular function, with aberrant methylation signatures being implicated in a growing number of human pathologies and complex human traits. Methods based on the modification of genomic DNA with sodium bisulfite are considered the 'gold-standard' for DNA methylation profiling on genomic DNA; however they require large amounts of DNA and may be prohibitively expensive when used on the large sample sizes necessary to detect small effects.
Elucidation of the principal targets of the action of the antimalarial drug artemisinin is an ongoing pursuit that is important for understanding the action of this drug and for the development of more potent analogues. We have examined the chemical reaction of Hb with artemisinin. The protein-bound haem in Hb has been found to react with artemisinin much faster than is the case with free haem.
Artemisinins induce drug metabolism through the activation of the pregnane X receptor (PXR) in vitro. Here, we report the resequencing and genotyping of PXR variants in 75 Vietnamese individuals previously characterized for CYP3A enzyme activity after artemisinin exposure. We identified a total of 31 PXR variants, including 5 novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and we identified significantly different allele frequencies relative to other ethnic groups.
BACKGROUND: Hemozoin crystals are normally formed in vivo by Plasmodium parasites to detoxify free heme released after hemoglobin digestion during its intraerythrocytic stage. Inhibition of hemozoin formation by various drugs results in free heme concentration toxic for the parasites. As a consequence, in vitro assays have been developed to screen and select candidate antimalarial drugs based on their capacity to inhibit hemozoin formation.
Nardostachys jatamansi DC. is a highly reputed Medhya and Nootropic (Learning and Memory) Ayurvedic medicinal plant. Its use as herbal medicine singly and as an ingredient of multi-herbal formulations is fast increasing. In order to authenticate and evaluate it quantitatively, its standardization is highly warranted with respect to a reliable marker. In this connection a rapid and highly sensitive UPLC-QTOF MS method has been developed.
The study of whole patterns of changes in protein expression and their modifications, or proteomics, presents both technological advances as well as formidable challenges to biological researchers. Nutrition research and the food sciences in general will be strongly influenced by the new knowledge generated by the proteomics approach. This review examines the different aspects of proteomics technologies, while emphasizing the value of consideration of "traditional" aspects of protein separation.
The skin is a highly accessible organ and thus provides an attractive immune environment for cost-effective, simple, and needle-free delivery of vaccines and immunomodulators. In this study, we pretreated mouse skin with an anionic surfactant, sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), for a short period of time (10 min) followed by epicutaneous vaccination with hen egg lysozyme antigen. We demonstrated for the first time that pretreatment of skin with surfactant SLS significantly enhances the production of antibody to hen egg lysozyme.
Journal of Applied Physiology (Bethesda, Md.: 1985)
This paper describes a method of determining protein synthesis and turnover using in vivo labeling of protein with deuterated water and analysis of matrix-assisted laser desorption time-of-flight mass spectrometer (MALDI-TOF) spectrum. Protein synthesis is calculated using mass isotopomer distribution analysis instead of precursor to product amino acid enrichment ratio.
The chemopreventive efficacy of cranberry juice concentrate in an experimental model of urinary bladder cancer was evaluated using female Fischer-344 rats. The animals received N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)-nitrosamine (OH-BBN) for a period of eight weeks. Cranberry juice concentrate was administered at doses of 1.0 or 0.5 ml/rat/day beginning one week after the final OH-BBN treatment and continuing until the end of the study. The urinary bladders of all the rats were weighed and examined grossly for lesions, and all masses were submitted for pathological evaluation.
Pancreatic cancer MIA PaCa cells were cultured in the presence and absence of (15)N amino acids mixture for 72 h. During protein synthesis, the incorporation of (15)N amino acids results in a new mass isotopomer distribution in protein, which is approximated by the concatenation of two binomial distributions of (13)C and (15)N. The fraction of protein synthesis (FSR) can thus be determined from the relative intensities of the "labeled" (new) and the "unlabeled" (old) spectra.