Spectrum Analysis

Publication Title: 
Brain Research Bulletin

Autonomic and electroencephalographic (EEG) responses to aversive stimuli presented by means of hypnotic suggestion have been studied in man.Healthy volunteers with simple phobia were screened for susceptibility to hypnosis. The experimental paradigm included periods of rest during which the hypnotized subjects were asked to produce an emotionally neutral mental image and periods of emotional activation in which they were asked to image a phobic object.

Author(s): 
Gemignani, A.
Santarcangelo, E.
Sebastiani, L.
Marchese, C.
Mammoliti, R.
Simoni, A.
Ghelarducci, B.
Publication Title: 
CNS drugs

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of spectral frequency index (SFx) monitoring to assess the depth of anaesthesia during propofol-opioid total intravenous anaesthesia (TIVA). METHODS: Thirty-three patients scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy under propofol TIVA were prospectively and randomly allocated to receive either remifentanil (bolus of 1.0 microg/kg, followed by continuous infusion from 0.25 to 0.05 microg/kg/min) [n = 18] or alfentanil (bolus of 10 microg/kg, followed by continuous infusion from 2.0 to 0.5 microg/kg/min) [n = 15].

Author(s): 
Zaba, Zbigniew
Bienert, Agnieszka
Drobnik, Leon
Dyderski, Stanislaw
Kusza, Krzysztof
Publication Title: 
Arzneimittel-Forschung

Areca cattechu Linn is commonly known as areca nut or betel nut. It is a very widely cultivated plant in eastern countries like India, Bangladesh, Ceylon, Malaya, the Philippines and Japan. The importance of this nut is due to its use for chewing purposes. It had an important place as a pharmaceutical in Ayurveda--the ancient Indian system of medicine--also in the Chinese medicinal practices. The pharmaceutical importance of areca nut is due to the presence of an alkaloid, arecoline. Synthetic arecoline hydrobromide is also shown to possess numerous pharmacological properties.

Author(s): 
Arjungi, K. N.
Publication Title: 
International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition

In addition to their use as food and spice, chillies have been popular in both Ayurvedic and homoeopathic treatments since ancient times. Elemental analyses on their seeds with the help of X-ray fluorescence spectra reveal the presence of hitherto undetected magnesium, along with sulphur and chlorine. Fourier transform infrared and Fourier transform Raman spectra of the seeds reveal the presence of specific functional groups, attributed to the different bands present in the spectra.

Author(s): 
Barua, A. Gohain
Hazarika, S.
Pathak, J. Sarmah
Kalita, C.
Publication Title: 
Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology

Vigilance is a term with varied definitions but the most common usage is sustained attention or tonic alertness. This usage of vigilance implies both the degree of arousal on the sleep-wake axis and the level of cognitive performance. There are many interacting neural and neurotransmitter systems that affect vigilance. Most studies of vigilance have relied on states where the sleep-wake state is altered, e.g. drowsiness, sleep-deprivation, and CNS-active drugs, but there are factors ranging from psychophysics to motivation that may impact vigilance.

Author(s): 
Oken, B. S.
Salinsky, M. C.
Elsas, S. M.
Publication Title: 
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry

Bioactivity-guided fractionation of Notopterygium forbesii has resulted in the isolation of one new coumarin glycoside and one new phenethyl vanillate, together with seventeen known compounds. The structures of these compounds were characterized by spectroscopic methods. These compounds were evaluated for their binding affinities to the opioid and dopamine receptors, and falcarindiol showed weak binding affinities to opioid receptors and moderate affinity for D1 receptor (K(i)=192+/-6 nM).

Author(s): 
Ma, Zhongze
Xu, Wei
Liu-Chen, Lee-Yuan
Lee, David Y. W.
Publication Title: 
Biological Psychology

EEGs were examined in data collected from 348 1-week, 1-month and 3-month-old infants of depressed and non-depressed mothers across several studies. Both the percentage of infants exhibiting spectral peaks and the frequency in Hz at which those peaks were exhibited increased with age. Consistent with previous studies, infants of depressed mothers exhibited greater left frontal EEG power, suggesting greater relative right frontal EEG activity than infants of non-depressed mothers.

Author(s): 
Diego, Miguel A.
Jones, Nancy Aaron
Field, Tiffany
Publication Title: 
The Analyst

With increased awareness of nutrition and the advocacy for healthier food choices, there exists a great demand for a simple, easy-to-use test that can reliably measure the antioxidant capacity of dietary products. We report development and characterization of a portable nanoparticle based-assay, similar to a small sensor patch, for rapid and sensitive detection of food antioxidants. The assay is based on the use of immobilized ceria nanoparticles, which change color after interaction with antioxidants by means of redox and surface chemistry reactions.

Author(s): 
Sharpe, Erica
Frasco, Thalia
Andreescu, Daniel
Andreescu, Silvana
Publication Title: 
Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin

Kaempferia parviflora (KP), a Zingiberaceae plant, is used as a folk medicine in Thailand for the treatment of various symptoms, including general pains, colic gastrointestinal disorders, and male impotence. In this study, the inhibitory activities of KP against xanthine oxidase (XOD) were investigated. The extract of KP rhizomes showed more potent inhibitory activity (38% at 500 µg/ml) than those of the other Zingiberaceae plants tested.

Author(s): 
Nakao, Kikuyo
Murata, Kazuya
Deguchi, Takahiro
Itoh, Kimihisa
Fujita, Takanori
Higashino, Masayuki
Yoshioka, Yuri
Matsumura, Shin-Ichi
Tanaka, Rika
Shinada, Tetsuro
Ohfune, Yasufumi
Matsuda, Hideaki
Publication Title: 
Nutrients

Abelmoschus esculentus (Malvaceae), Hibiscus acetosella (Malvaceae), Manihot esculenta Crantz (Euphorbiaceae) and Pteridium aquilinum (Dennstaedtiaceae) leaves are currently consumed as vegetables by migrants from sub-Saharan Africa living in Western Europe and by the people in the origin countries, where these plants are also used in the folk medicine. Manihot leaves are also eaten in Latin America and some Asian countries. This work investigated the capacity of aqueous extracts prepared from those vegetables to inhibit the peroxidation of a linoleic acid emulsion.

Author(s): 
Tsumbu, Cesar N.
Deby-Dupont, Ginette
Tits, Monique
Angenot, Luc
Franck, Thierry
Serteyn, Didier
Mouithys-Mickalad, Ange

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