What is love and what part does it play in psychoanalysis? Where are the analyst and the analysand situated in relation to the roles defined as those of the "lover" and the "beloved"? Jacques Lacan explores these and other questions in his soon-to-be-published Seminar VIII: Transference by providing an extensive commentary on Plato's most famous dialogue on love, the Symposium. This paper outlines some of the major points about love that grow out of Lacan's reading of the dialogue and examines their relevance to the analytic setting.
In recent years, evolutionary psychologists and anthropologists have debated whether ethnic markers have evolved to solve adaptive problems related to interpersonal coordination or to interpersonal cooperation. In the present study, we add to this debate by exploring how individuals living in a modern society utilize the accents of unfamiliar individuals to make social decisions in hypothetical economic games that measure interpersonal trust, generosity, and coordination. A total of 4603 Danish participants completed a verbal-guise study administered over the Internet.
Neuropsychology has customarily taken a molecular and myopic view of executive functioning, concentrating largely on those proximal processes of which it may be comprised. Although commendable as a starting point, such an approach can never answer the question, "Why executive functioning?" The present paper encourages neuropsychologists to contemplate the longer-term, functional nature of the executive functions (EFs), using an evolutionary perspective.
The authors randomly selected 50 Nobel Peace Prize speeches and content analyzed them to determine which values the speakers extolled most frequently. The 10 most frequently mentioned values were peace (in 100% of the speeches), hope (92%), security (86%), justice (85%), responsibility (81%), liberty (80%), tolerance (79%), altruism (75%), God (49%), and truth (38%). The authors discuss the interplay of these values in the modern world and implications regarding the search for universal moral values.
Converging evidence from both human and animal studies has highlighted the pervasive role of two neuropeptides, oxytocin (OXT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP), in mammalian social behaviours. Recent molecular genetic studies of the human arginine vasopressin 1a (AVPR1a) and oxytocin (OXTR) receptors have strengthened the evidence regarding the role of these two neuropeptides in a range of normal and pathological behaviours.
Journal of the American Psychiatric Nurses Association
BACKGROUND: Sexual violence is a significant and prevalent problem that affects many people in the United States. Helping others is one way people cope with, or heal from, sexual violence. OBJECTIVE: To develop of Typology of Helping Others describing how survivors of sexual violence engage in altruism. STUDY DESIGN: Qualitative descriptive methods were used to describe how survivors of sexual violence engaged in altruism in response to their experiences with violence. RESULTS: Helping others was a salient concern for most participants who experienced sexual violence.
Decisions are rarely made in social isolation. One phenomenon often observed in social interactions is altruistic punishment, i.e. the punishment of unfair behavior by others at a personal cost. The tendency for altruistic punishment is altered by affective states including those induced by stress exposure. Stress is thought to exert bi-directional effects on behavior: immediately after stress, reflex-like and habitual behavior is promoted while later on more far-sighted, flexible and goal-directed behavior is enhanced.