Peroxidic antimalarials such as the semisynthetic artemisinins are critically important in the treatment of drug-resistant malaria. Nevertheless, their peroxide bond-dependent mode of action is still not well understood. Using combination experiments with cultured Plasmodium falciparum cells, we investigated the interactions of the nitroxide radical spin trap, 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidinyloxy (TEMPO), and four of its analogs with artemisinin and the ozonide drug development candidate OZ277.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
The metal-independent decomposition of organic hydroperoxides and the formation of organic alkoxyl radicals in the absence or presence of halogenated quinones were studied with electron spin resonance (ESR) and the spin-trapping agent 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO). We found that 2,5-dichloro-1,4-benzoquinone (DCBQ) markedly enhanced the decomposition of tert-butylhydroperoxide (t-BuOOH), leading to the formation of the DMPO adducts with t-butoxyl radicals (t-BuO* and methyl radicals *CH(3)).
Previous findings that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in neuropathic pain, mainly through spinal mechanisms, suggest that ROS may be involved in central sensitization. To investigate the possible role of ROS in central sensitization, we examined in rats the effects of ROS scavengers on capsaicin-induced secondary hyperalgesia, which is known to be mediated by central sensitization. We used two different ROS scavengers: phenyl N-tert-butylnitrone (PBN) and 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine 1-oxyl (TEMPOL).
Scavengers of reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been shown to produce a strong antinociceptive effect on persistent pain, and mitochondria are suggested to be the main source of ROS in the spinal dorsal horn. To explore whether excessive generation of mitochondrial superoxide alone can induce pain, the effect of mitochondrial electron transport complex inhibitors on the development of mechanical hyperalgesia was examined in mice.
BACKGROUND: The varying nature of chronic pain (CP) is difficult to correlate to neural activity using typical functional magnetic resonance imaging methods. Arterial spin labeling is a perfusion-based imaging technique allowing the absolute quantification of regional cerebral blood flow, which is a surrogate measure of neuronal activity. METHODS: Subjects with chronic low back and radicular pain and matched healthy normal subjects, undergoing identical procedures, participated in three sessions: a characterization and training session and two arterial spin labeling sessions.
Neuroimaging studies have suggested the presence of alterations in the anatomo-functional properties of the brain of patients with chronic pain. However, investigation of the brain circuitry supporting the perception of clinical pain presents significant challenges, particularly when using traditional neuroimaging approaches. While potential neuroimaging markers for clinical pain have included resting brain connectivity, these cross-sectional studies have not examined sensitivity to within-subject exacerbation of pain.