Spinal Nerve Roots

Publication Title: 
The Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society

BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Spinal manipulation (SM) is a form of manual therapy used clinically to treat patients with low back and neck pain. The most common form of this maneuver is characterized as a high-velocity (duration <150 ms), low-amplitude (segmental translation <2 mm, rotation <4 degrees , and applied force 220-889 N) impulse thrust (high-velocity, low-amplitude spinal manipulation [HVLA-SM]).

Author(s): 
Pickar, Joel G.
Sung, Paul S.
Kang, Yu-Ming
Ge, Weiqing
Publication Title: 
Journal of Neurophysiology

Muscle spindles contribute to sensorimotor control by supplying feedback regarding muscle length and consequently information about joint position. While substantial study has been devoted to determining the position sensitivity of spindles in limb muscles, there appears to be no data on their sensitivity in the low back. We determined the relationship between lumbar paraspinal muscle spindle discharge and paraspinal muscle lengthening estimated from controlled cranialward movement of the L(6) vertebra in anesthetized cats.

Author(s): 
Cao, Dong-Yuan
Pickar, Joel G.
Ge, Weiginq
Ianuzzi, Allyson
Khalsa, Partap S.
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology

Treatment for individuals suffering from migraines and pain due to an inflammation or impingement of a nerve range from noninvasive methods such as massage, physical therapy, and medications to invasive methods such as epidural steroid injections and surgery. Each method of treatment has an associated level of risk. While minor to moderate complications from such procedures do occur, deaths are very rare. We report the first cited case of a death associated with the pain management procedure called nerve root block, also referred to as a transforaminal epidural steroid injection.

Author(s): 
Rozin, Leon
Rozin, Roman
Koehler, Steven A.
Shakir, Abdulrezzak
Ladham, Shaun
Barmada, Mamdouha
Dominick, Joseph
Wecht, Cyril H.
Publication Title: 
Molecules (Basel, Switzerland)

Dried root of Rehmannia glutinosa is a kidney-tonifying herbal medicine with a long history of safe use in traditional folk medicine for the treatment of joint diseases. This study was conducted to investigate prevention of bone loss by a standardized dried root of R. glutinosa in an ovariectomized (OVX) rat model of osteoporosis. The OVX groups were divided into five groups treated with distilled water, 17β-estradiol (E2 10 µg/kg, once daily, i.p) and dried root of R. glutinosa extracts (DRGE 30, 100, and 300 mg/kg, twice daily, p.o) for eight weeks.

Author(s): 
Lim, Dong Wook
Kim, Yun Tai
Publication Title: 
Acta Neurochirurgica

Motor tics of the head and neck, especially hemifacial spasm and spastic torticollis, are the substance of this paper. Forty-six cases are presented, and surgical techniques are described. In hemifacial spasm the intracranial neurovascular lysis of Jannetta is a valid operation with the best results to date but has a 7 1/2% risk of unilateral deafness. The extracranial submastoid partial section of Scoville is completely safe and gives excellent results, but there is a probability of mild to moderate return of the spasm in one to two year's time.

Author(s): 
Scoville, W. B.
Bettis, D. B.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics

Spinal stenosis is a loosely used term meaning different things to different people. A clinical picture of episodic sciatic pain and a normal physical examination usually confronts the physician. Various anatomic lesions can produce traction and compression of spinal nerve roots. The pathophysiology of the compression and the resultant ischemia of spinal nerve roots is discussed. Accurate diagnosis may allow conservative care, including manipulation, to be utilized prior to surgical consideration.

Author(s): 
Foreman, S. M.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics

Many patients with low back pain demonstrate pelvic symptomatology attributable to lower sacral nerve root compression. Lower sacral nerve root compression has been identified as a cause of pelvic pain and pelvic organ dysfunction. Pelvic symptomatology secondary to lower sacral nerve root compression is given. Lower sacral nerve root compression is most commonly the result of lumbosacral disc lesion. A case of low back pain accompanied with pelvic symptomatology is presented along with its response to distractive manipulation.

Author(s): 
Browning, J. E.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics

No data are available on the incidence of pelvic pain and organic dysfunction (PPOD) in patients suffering from low back pain. PPOD is not an uncommon finding in the low back pain patient. Women appear to be more frequently involved than men. The results of recent electrophysiologic investigations indicate that many patients with urological, bowel or anorectal dysfunction demonstrate evidence of denervation neuropathy in muscles innervated by the branches of the pudendal nerve.

Author(s): 
Browning, J. E.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics

Previous reports have identified mechanical disorders of the lumbar spine as a cause of pelvic pain and organic dysfunction (PPOD) in patients with low back pain. Less common however, are reports of mechanically induced pelvic pain and organic dysfunction in patients without accompanying low back pain. This report details the examination findings and treatment response of a patient with pelvic pain, organic dysfunction and clinical evidence of lower sacral nerve root compression (LSNRC) in whom low back pain was not an accompanying finding.

Author(s): 
Browning, J. E.
Publication Title: 
Der Nervenarzt

Headache in association with the cervical spine is often misdiagnosed and treated inadequately due to confusing and varying terminology. Primary headaches such as tension-type headache and migraine are incorrectly categorized as "cervicogenic" merely because of their occipital localization. Cervicogenic headache described by Sjastaad presents as a unilateral headache of fluctuating intensity increased by movement of the head and typically radiating from occipital to frontal regions.

Author(s): 
Pöllmann, W.
Keidel, M.
Pfaffenrath, V.

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