Autism is a chronic neurodevelopmental disorder of unknown cause that affects approximately 1-3 percent of children and four times more boys than girls. Its prevalence is global and its social impact is devastating. In autism, the brain is unable to process sensory information normally. Instead, simple stimuli from the outside world are experienced as overwhelmingly intense and strain the emotional centers of the brain. A stress response to the incoming information is initiated that destabilizes cognitive networks and short-circuits adequate behavioral output.
OBJECTIVE: Of the 34 million adult Americans (17%) using mind-body medicine therapies, 8 million (24%) have anxiety/depression. The evidence for using mind-body therapies to address varying depressive symptoms in populations with and without other chronic comorbidities is reviewed. METHODS: Systematic literature searches of PubMed (Medline), Embase, CINAHL, and the seven databases encompassed by Current Contents, Web of Science, and Web of Knowledge were conducted.
RATIONALE: Smoking cessation is associated with cigarette cravings and tobacco withdrawal symptoms (TWS), and exercise appears to ameliorate many of these negative effects. A number of studies have examined the relationships between exercise, cigarette cravings, and TWS. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were (a) to review and update the literature examining the effects of short bouts of exercise on cigarette cravings, TWS, affect, and smoking behaviour and (b) to conduct meta-analyses of the effect of exercise on cigarette cravings.
The Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
BACKGROUND: Seven previous systematic reviews (SRs) have evaluated back schools, and one has evaluated brief education, with the latest SR including studies until November 2004. The effectiveness of fear-avoidance training has not been assessed. PURPOSE: To assess the effectiveness of back schools, brief education, and fear-avoidance training for chronic low back pain (CLBP). STUDY DESIGN: A SR. METHODS: We searched the MEDLINE database of randomized controlled trials (RCT) until August 2006 for relevant trials reported in English.
Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology: The Official Journal for the Society of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, American Psychological Association, Division 53
Hundreds of validated evidence-based intervention programs (EBIP) aim to improve families' well-being; however, most are not broadly adopted. As an alternative diffusion strategy, we created wellness centers to reach families' everyday lives with a prevention framework. At two wellness centers, one in a middle-class neighborhood and one in a low-income neighborhood, popular local activity leaders (instructors of martial arts, yoga, sports, music, dancing, Zumba), and motivated parents were trained to be Family Mentors.
The prevalence of Parkinson's disease (PD) appears to be lower in Asia compared to the Western world. It is unclear if this is related to the ubiquitous use of traditional medicine in Eastern healthcare, but the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) modalities in countries like Korea may be as high as 76%. Among patients with PD, herbal medicines, health supplement foods, and acupuncture are interventions which are increasingly used throughout the world.
Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine (New York, N.Y.)
OBJECTIVE: To provide a descriptive overview of the clinical trials assessing meditation practices for health care. DESIGN: Systematic review of the literature. Comprehensive searches were conducted in 17 electronic bibliographic databases through September 2005. Other sources of potentially relevant studies included hand searches, reference tracking, contacting experts, and gray literature searches. Included studies were clinical trials with 10 or more adult participants using any meditation practice, providing quantitative data on health-related outcomes, and published in English.
Yes. Exercise reduces patient-perceived symptoms of depression when used as monotherapy (strength of recommendation [SOR]: B, meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials [RCTs] with significant heterogeneity). It relieves symptoms as effectively as cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) or pharmacologic anti-depressant therapy (SOR: B, meta-analysis) and more effectively than bright light therapy (SOR: B, meta-analysis). Resistance exercise and mixed exercise (resistance and aerobic) work better than aerobic exercise alone (SOR: B, meta-analysis).
INTRODUCTION: About 3% of people will be diagnosed with epilepsy during their lifetime, but about 70% of people with epilepsy eventually go into remission. METHODS AND OUTCOMES: We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of starting antiepileptic drug treatment following a single seizure? What are the effects of drug monotherapy in people with partial epilepsy? What are the effects of additional drug treatments in people with drug-resistant partial epilepsy?
Existing literature suggests that cancer survivors present with high rates of morbidity due to various treatment and disease induced factors. Research globally has shown exercise to be beneficial in improving treatment outcomes and quality of life. India has a high prevalence of cancer and not much is known about exercise interventions for cancer survivors in India. This review was planned to review the state of exercise based interventions for cancer survivors in India.