Sprains and Strains

Publication Title: 
BMJ clinical evidence

INTRODUCTION: Injury of the lateral ligament complex of the ankle joint occurs in about one in 10,000 people a day, accounting for a quarter of all sports injuries. METHODS AND OUTCOMES: We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatment strategies for acute ankle ligament ruptures? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to November 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review).

Struijs, Peter Aa
Kerkhoffs, Gino Mmj
Publication Title: 
BMC complementary and alternative medicine

BACKGROUND: Ankle sprain is one of the most frequently encountered musculoskeletal injuries; however, the efficacy of acupuncture in treating ankle sprains remains uncertain. We therefore performed a systematic review to evaluate the evidence regarding acupuncture for ankle sprains. METHODS: We searched 15 data sources and two trial registries up to February 2012. Randomized controlled trials of acupuncture were included if they involved patients with ankle sprains and reported outcomes of symptom improvement, including pain. A Cochrane risk of bias assessment tool was used.

Park, Jimin
Hahn, Seokyung
Park, Ji-Yeun
Park, Hi-Joon
Lee, Hyangsook
Publication Title: 
British Journal of Sports Medicine

BACKGROUND: Ankle sprains are highly prevalent with high risk of recurrence. Consequently, there are a significant number of research reports examining strategies for treating and preventing acute and recurrent sprains (otherwise known as chronic ankle instability (CAI)), with a coinciding proliferation of review articles summarising these reports. OBJECTIVE: To provide a systematic overview of the systematic reviews evaluating treatment strategies for acute ankle sprain and CAI. DESIGN: Overview of intervention systematic reviews. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals with acute ankle sprain/CAI.

Doherty, Cailbhe
Bleakley, Chris
Delahunt, Eamonn
Holden, Sinead
Publication Title: 
The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

BACKGROUND: An acute ankle sprain is a sudden-onset injury of one or more of the ankle ligaments. It is one of the most common musculoskeletal injuries in the general population as well as in athletes. In some countries, such as China and Korea, acupuncture is frequently used in the treatment of ankle sprains, either as a single treatment or a secondary intervention accompanied by standard medical treatment. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects (benefits and harms) of acupuncture for the treatment of ankle sprains in adults.

Kim, Tae-Hun
Lee, Myeong Soo
Kim, Kun Hyung
Kang, Jung Won
Choi, Tae-Young
Ernst, Edzard
Publication Title: 
The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association

CONTEXT: Normal physiologic movement, pathologic conditions, and osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) are believed to produce effects on the shape and proliferation of human fibroblasts. Studies of biophysically strained fibroblasts would be useful in producing a model of the cellular mechanisms underlying OMT.

Dodd, John G.
Good, Meadow Maze
Nguyen, Tammy L.
Grigg, Andersen I.
Batia, Lyn M.
Standley, Paul R.
Publication Title: 

In a previous study, we showed that electroacupuncture (EA) applied to the SI-6 point on the contralateral forelimb produces long-lasting and powerful analgesia in pain caused by ankle sprain in a rat model. To investigate the underlying mechanism of EA analgesia, the present study tested the effects of various antagonists on known endogenous analgesic systems in this model. Ankle sprain was induced in anesthetized rats by overextending their right ankle with repeated forceful plantar flexion and inversion of the foot.

Koo, Sung Tae
Lim, Kyu Sang
Chung, Kyungsoon
Ju, Hyunsu
Chung, Jin Mo
Publication Title: 
Neuroscience Letters

Ankle sprain is a frequent injury in humans that results in pain, swelling and difficulty in walking on the affected side. Currently a suitable animal model resembling human ankle sprain is lacking. Here, we describe an animal ankle sprain model induced by ankle ligament injury (ALI) in rats. Cutting combinations of the lateral ankle ligament complex produced pain, edema and difficulty of weight bearing, thereby mimicking severe (grade III) ankle sprain in humans.

Kim, Hee Young
Wang, Jigong
Chung, Kyungsoon
Chung, Jin Mo
Publication Title: 
Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine (New York, N.Y.)

BACKGROUND: Little is known in the United States about those who practice t'ai chi and qigong, two mind-body techniques that originated in Asia. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to characterize use of t'ai chi and qigong for health with regard to sociodemographics, health status, medical conditions, perceptions of helpfulness, and disclosure of use to medical professionals.

Birdee, Gurjeet S.
Wayne, Peter M.
Davis, Roger B.
Phillips, Russell S.
Yeh, Gloria Y.
Publication Title: 
Clinics in Sports Medicine

Foot and ankle injuries are extremely common among athletes and other physically active individuals. Rehabilitation programs that emphasize the use of therapeutic exercise to restore joint range of motion, muscle strength, neuromuscular coordination, and gait mechanics have been shown to have clinical success for patients suffering various foot and ankle pathologies. Rehabilitation programs are discussed for ankle sprains, plantar fasciitis, Achilles tendonitis, and turf toe.

Chinn, Lisa
Hertel, Jay
Publication Title: 
Journal of Biomechanical Engineering

High-velocity, low-amplitude spinal manipulation (HVLA-SM) is an efficacious treatment for low back pain, although the physiological mechanisms underlying its effects remain elusive. The lumbar facet joint capsule (FJC) is innervated with mechanically sensitive neurons and it has been theorized that the neurophysiological benefits of HVLA-SM are partially induced by stimulation of FJC neurons. Biomechanical aspects of this theory have been investigated in humans while neurophysiological aspects have been investigated using cat models.

Ianuzzi, Allyson
Pickar, Joel G.
Khalsa, Partap S.


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