The absence of a vaccine and the rampant resistance to almost all antimalarial drugs have accentuated the urgent need for new antimalarial drugs and drug targets for both prophylaxis and chemotherapy. The aim of the study was to discover effective plant extracts against Plasmodium falciparum. In the present study, the hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol extracts of Citrus sinensis (peel), Leucas aspera, Ocimum sanctum, Phyllanthus acidus (leaf), Terminalia chebula (seed) were tested for their antimalarial activity against chloroquine (CQ)-sensitive (3D7) strain of P.
Nutrient availability and nutrient-dependent biochemical signals represent major determinants of cellular senescence and organismal aging. The present chapter describes simple procedures to reliably evaluate the response of cultured cell to nutrients through the longevity protein p66(SHC1) and the mTOR/S6K cascade, which might be used to study cellular senescence and its chemical modulation by pharmaceutical agents in vitro.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease that causes progressive paralysis due to motor neuron death. Several lines of published evidence suggested that inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling might protect neurons from degeneration. To test this hypothesis in vivo, we treated the SOD1 transgenic mouse model of ALS with erlotinib, an EGFR inhibitor clinically approved for oncology indications.
Dietary restriction (DR) extends lifespan in man species and modulates evolutionary conserved signalling and metabolic pathways. Most of these studies were done in adult animals. Here we investigated fat phenotypes of C. elegans larvae and adults which were exposed to DR during development. This approach was named "developmental-DR" (dDR). Moderate as well as stringent dDR increased the triglyceride to protein ratio in L4 larvae and adult worms. This alteration was accompanied by a marked expansion of intestinal and hypodermal lipid droplets.
Radially oriented ensembles of neurons and their projections, termed minicolumns, are hypothesized to be the basic microcircuit of mammalian cerebral cortex. Minicolumns can be divided into a core and a peripheral neuropil space compartment. The core of minicolumns is constrained by the migratory path of pyramidal cells and their attendant radially oriented projections. Variation in minicolumnar morphometry and density is observed both within and across species.
BACKGROUND: Malaria, a major public health issue in developing nations, is responsible for more than one million deaths a year. The most lethal species, Plasmodium falciparum, causes up to 90% of fatalities. Drug resistant strains to common therapies have emerged worldwide and recent artemisinin-based combination therapy failures hasten the need for new antimalarial drugs. Discovering novel compounds to be used as antimalarials is expedited by the use of a high-throughput screen (HTS) to detect parasite growth and proliferation.
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
The spread of Plasmodium falciparum drug resistance is outpacing new antimalarial development and compromising effective malaria treatment. Combination therapy is widely implemented to prolong the effectiveness of currently approved antimalarials. To maximize utility of available drugs, periodic monitoring of drug efficacy and gathering of accurate information regarding parasite-sensitivity changes are essential. We describe a high-throughput, non-radioactive, field-based assay to evaluate in vitro antimalarial drug sensitivity of P. falciparum isolates from 40 Senegalese patients.
Efforts to move from malaria control to eradication will require new approaches to block malaria transmission, such as the development of anti-malarial drugs with gametocytocidal activity. Here fluorescent oxidoreduction indicator alamarBlue is used to develop a screen for gametocyte viability. The fluorescent signal increases linearly with gametocyte number (R(2)=0.99) and determination of the IC(50) of epoxomicin demonstrated the assay was reproducible and sensitive (IC(50) 2.16±0.57 nM, Z'-factor 0.81±0.01).
BACKGROUND: Activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) plays an important role in the development of cirrhosis through the increased production of collagen. p53, the "guardian of the genome", is a transcription factor that can bind to promoter regions of hundreds of genes where it either activates or suppresses gene expression. Thereby, p53 serves as a tumor suppressor by inducing cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, senescence and DNA repair. Artesunate is a derivative of Artemisinin, Scholars had found it had more extensive pharmacological effects past 10 years.