Starvation

Publication Title: 
Nature

The mechanisms that determine the lifespan of an organism are still largely a mystery. One goal of ageing research is to find drugs that would increase lifespan and vitality when given to an adult animal. To this end, we tested 88,000 chemicals for the ability to extend the lifespan of adult Caenorhabditis elegans nematodes. Here we report that a drug used as an antidepressant in humans increases C. elegans lifespan. In humans, this drug blocks neural signalling by the neurotransmitter serotonin. In C.

Author(s): 
Petrascheck, Michael
Ye, Xiaolan
Buck, Linda B.
Publication Title: 
Cell Death and Differentiation

Ageing in divergent animal phyla is influenced by several evolutionarily conserved signalling pathways, mitochondrial activity and various environmental factors such as nutrient availability and temperature. Although ageing is a multifactorial process with many mechanisms contributing to the decline, the intracellular accumulation of damaged proteins and mitochondria is a feature common to all aged cells.

Author(s): 
Vellai, T.
Publication Title: 
Genetics

It is widely appreciated that larvae of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans arrest development by forming dauer larvae in response to multiple unfavorable environmental conditions. C. elegans larvae can also reversibly arrest development earlier, during the first larval stage (L1), in response to starvation. "L1 arrest" (also known as "L1 diapause") occurs without morphological modification but is accompanied by increased stress resistance.

Author(s): 
Baugh, L. Ryan
Publication Title: 
Gerontology

Much research interest, and recently even commercial interest, has been predicated on the assumption that reasonably closely-related species--humans and mice, for example--should, in principle, respond to ageing-retarding interventions with an increase in maximum lifespan roughly proportional to their control lifespan (that without the intervention).

Author(s): 
De Grey, Aubrey D. N. J.
Publication Title: 
Mechanisms of Ageing and Development

The food restriction model for life extension is nearing "three-score and 10" years of age and remains in good shape, preserving much of the mystique of its youth. Although originally described for laboratory rodents, recent work shows that food restriction also appears to slow ageing processes in a range of other animal species, raising the question of whether this response represents some generalised evolutionary adaptation, perhaps a strategy to cope with periods of famine.

Author(s): 
Kirkwood, Thomas B. L.
Shanley, Daryl P.
Publication Title: 
Mechanisms of Ageing and Development

Although there is extensive evidence that caloric restriction (CR) extends lifespan in several species the evidence base for humans is weak. We are still at the stage of applying inductive reasoning and of framing hypotheses to be tested. It is known that a genetic background contributes about 25% to the variation in human longevity, but thought unlikely that any genes conferring longer lifespan have been positively selected to do so. It is more likely that any such benefits are unintended consequences arising from other adaptations.

Author(s): 
Prentice, Andrew M.
Publication Title: 
Nature

The mechanisms that determine the lifespan of an organism are still largely a mystery. One goal of ageing research is to find drugs that would increase lifespan and vitality when given to an adult animal. To this end, we tested 88,000 chemicals for the ability to extend the lifespan of adult Caenorhabditis elegans nematodes. Here we report that a drug used as an antidepressant in humans increases C. elegans lifespan. In humans, this drug blocks neural signalling by the neurotransmitter serotonin. In C.

Author(s): 
Petrascheck, Michael
Ye, Xiaolan
Buck, Linda B.
Publication Title: 
Experimental Gerontology

Apolipoprotein D (ApoD), a member of the Lipocalin family, is the gene most up-regulated with age in the mammalian brain. Its expression strongly correlates with aging-associated neurodegenerative and metabolic diseases. Two homologues of ApoD expressed in the Drosophila brain, Glial Lazarillo (GLaz) and Neural Lazarillo (NLaz), are known to alter longevity in male flies. However, sex differences in the aging process have not been explored so far for these genes.

Author(s): 
Ruiz, Mario
Sanchez, Diego
Canal, Inmaculada
Acebes, Angel
Ganfornina, Maria D.
Publication Title: 
BMC genomics

BACKGROUND: While studying long-lived mutants has advanced our understanding of the processes involved in ageing, the mechanisms underlying natural variation in lifespan and ageing rate remain largely unknown. Here, we characterise genome-wide expression patterns of a long-lived, natural variant of Drosophila melanogaster resulting from selection for starvation resistance (SR) and compare it with normal-lived control flies (C).

Author(s): 
Doroszuk, Agnieszka
Jonker, Martijs J.
Pul, Nicolien
Breit, Timo M.
Zwaan, Bas J.
Publication Title: 
Aging

Calorie restriction (CR), which deactivates the nutrient-sensing mTOR pathway, slows down aging and prevents age-related diseases such as type II diabetes. Compared with CR, rapamycin more efficiently inhibits mTOR. Noteworthy, severe CR and starvation cause a reversible condition known as "starvation diabetes." As was already discussed, chronic administration of rapamycin can cause a similar condition in some animal models.

Author(s): 
Blagosklonny, Mikhail V.

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